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Flashcards in Pituitary Endocrine Deck (25):
1

Polypeptide & AA derived hormones

- Prominent RER and Golgi
- Secretory granules
- bind surface receptors
- Stain w/:
--Synaptophysin
--Chromogranin
--PGP 9.5

2

Steroid hormones

- Cytoplasmic lipid bodies
- SER
- mitochondria
- Continuous Sythesis
- Bind nuclear receptors
- Stain w/ Melan A

3

Corticotroph adenoma (Hormone / Lesion / Clinical sign)

- ACTH --> cortisol secretion
- anterior pituitary neoplasia & Diffuse Bilateral Hyperplasia of adrenal cortex

-

4

Somatotroph adenoma (Hormone / Lesion / Clinical sign)

- GH and Insulin-like hormone
- anterior pituitary neoplasia, acromegaly
- PU/PD (insulin resistant)

5

Adrenocortical adenoma

--

6

Thyroid follicular cell adenoma

--

7

Thyroid C-cell adenoma

--

8

Parathryroid adenoma

--

9

Pancreatic islet cell adenoma

--

10

What cells are in the pars distalis

-mixed cell type
1. Acidophils
-GH, PRL
2. Chromophobes
-ACTH
3. Basophils
-ACTH, TSH, FSH, LH

-little stroma
-highly vascular

11

Pituitary disorders

1. non-functional pituitary --> mass effect on hypothalamus
2. Suprasellar neoplasms
3. Pituitary adenomas (intermedia/distalis)
4. Diabetes insipidus (neurohypophysis)

12

Dz's of Pituitary gland

1. Developmental disorders
2. Postnatal disturbances of growth *most common*
3. Degeneration /necrosis
4. Inflammation

13

Developmental disorders

1. Aplasia
2. Failure of adenohypophyseal development (Cystic Rathke's pouch)
3. Cyst

14

Cystic Rathke's Pouch

Oropharyngeal ECTOderm fails to differentiate to adenohypophysis
--> fail to produce any trophic hormones
--> Panhypopituitarism

-German shepherd dogs

15

Postnatal disturbances of pituitary

1. Physiologic atrophy
2. Proliferation
-hyperplasia
-neoplasia
-Microadenoma /Macroadenoma

16

Adenomas associated with Pars distalis

1. Corticotroph adenoma --> ACTH
2. Somatotroph adenoma --> GH and Insulin-like hormone

17

Adenomas associated with Pars intermedia

1. Corticotroph adenoma -DOGS
2. Melanotroph adeoma -HORSE

18

Pituitary Pars intermedia dysfunction(PPID) in horse (Hormone / Lesion / Clinical sign)

-CLIP, MSH, Endorphines
- Enlarged pituitary gland (intermedia)-can cause damage to dopaminergic neurons of Pars nervosa

Clinical signs (due to mass effect)
-long, matted hair coat
-lack of temp regulation
-adipose deposits
- NORMAL adrenal gland

19

Why is PPID, not a true cushing's?

ACTH measures high in horses with PPID
-CLIP is structurally similar to ACTH, so it is detected by laboratory as ACTH
-However, adrenal glands are normal. Suggesting CLIP does not act like ACTH to secrete excess cortisol. --THEREFORE, it cannot be considered Cushings

20

Define hirsutism --whats its significance

Excessive hairy-ness
-horses with PPID will present with this.

21

2 suprasellar tumors

1. Craniopharyngioma
2. Germ cell tumor

22

Main cause of Degeneration/ necrosis of pituitary

Compression via pituitary mass
-infarcts are rare

23

Inflammation in pituitary

1. Immune mediated hypophysitis
2. Systemic infection--hematogenous
3. Adjacent inflammation

24

What hormones are produced in the Pars Intermedia? and whats special about the dog?

MSH and CLIP

-Dogs: ACTH

25

Disruption to HPA axis in fetus is assoc' d w/....

prolonged gestation in ruminants