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Flashcards in Plant & Internal/External Stimuli Deck (74):
0

This type of STIMULI is characterized by CHEMICAL SIGNALS that are produced WITHIN the BODY and move from from one location to another.

Internal Stimuli

1

This type of STIMULI is characterized by a variety of PHYSICAL and BIOLOGICAL stimuli produced OUTSIDE of the BODY.

External Stimuli

2

This response to stimuli occurs when received SIGNALS ACTIVATE INTRACELLULAR PATHWAYS that lead to cellular responses.

Signal Transduction

3

This is the CONVERSION of one form of ENERGY to another.

Transduction

4

This is the process by which a signal ACTIVATES a RECEPTOR.

Reception

5

These are PROTEINS that become ACTIVATED WHEN they receive a SPECIFIC SIGNAL.

Receptors

6

What are TWO (2) LOCATIONS of RECEPTORS?

Plasma Membrane
Intracellular

7

The PLASMA MEMBRANE has ___________ heads and ___________ tails.

Hydrophilic
Hydrophobic

8

Receptors ON the PLASMA MEMBRANE have signals that are __________.

Water soluble

9

Receptors INSIDE of the CELL have signals that are ____________.

NOT water soluble

10

SECONDARY MESSENGERS are molecules and ions ________ of the cell.

Inside

11

SECONDARY MESSENGERS AMPLIFY the signal from the ________ and TRANSFER the signal to the ________.

Receptor
Effector

12

What are the TWO (2) common SECONDARY MESSENGERS in plants?

cyclic GMP
cyclic AMP

13

During the cAMP SECONDARY MESSENGER SYSTEM ____________ is the FIRST MESSENGER.

Hormone

14

During cAMP the RECEPTOR ACTIVATES and RELEASES __________.

G Protein

15

G PROTEIN binds to the ENZYME ___________.

Adenylate Cyclase

16

During the SECONDARY MESSENGER SYSTEM (cAMP) ATP is converted INTO __________. (The SECOND MESSENGER)

cAMP

17

During the SECONDARY MESSENGER SYSTEM (cAMP), __________ is activated which TRIGGERS a cascades of CHEMICAL REACTIONS known as _________.

Kinases
Effectors

18

In regards to the SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAY _________ is the ACTIVATION of EFFECTORS which will REGULATE one or more CELLULAR ACTIVITIES.

Response

19

These are PROTEINS or ENZYMES that carry SPECIFIC FUNCTIONS.

Effectors

20

What are the TWO (2) main types of CELLULAR RESPONSES?

Transcriptional Regulation
Post Transcriptional Modification

21

This is the INTERACTION between INTERNAL and EXTERNAL STIMULI that is related to PLANT GROWTH in DARKNESS.

Etiolation Response

22

This is the INTERACTION between INTERNAL and EXTERNAL STIMULI that is related to PLANT GROWTH in LIGHT.

De-etiolation

23

This is the RECEPTOR involved in DE-ETIOLATION's relation to SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION.

Phytochrome

24

These are CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES that regulate METABOLIC FUNCTION of TARGET CELLS.

Hormone

25

PLANT HORMONES generally AFFECT what THREE (3) things?

Cellular Division
Cellular Elongation
Cellular Differentiation

26

True or False: plant hormones are produced in one part of the plant and transported to other parts.

TRUE,

plant hormones are PRODUCED in ONE PART of the plant and TRANSPORTED to OTHER parts.

27

PLANT HORMONES TRIGGER ____________.

Signal Transduction Pathway

28

PLANT HORMONES lead to CHANGES such as ___________, ___________ and __________.

Development
Growth
Behavior

29

What are the SIX (6) types of PLANT HORMONES?

Auxins
Cytokinins
Gibberellins
Ethylene
Abscisic Acid
Brassinosteroids

30

This is the MASTER PLANT HORMONE.

Auxin

31

True or False: AUXIN is only influential up until maturity.

FALSE,

AUXIN INFLUENCES the plan throughout their LIFETIME.

32

WHERE are AUXINS PRODUCED?

Apical Meristems (shoots/roots)
Young Leaves
Developing Seeds and Fruits

33

AUXINS are TRANSPORTED via __________ and __________.

Parenchyma Cells
Apoplastic Transport

34

What are the THREE (3) MAJOR FUNCTIONS of AUXIN? What OTHER FUNCTIONS do auxins perform? (2)

MAJOR
1.) STEM ELONGATION
2.) lateral and adventitious ROOT GROWTH
3.) PHOTOTROPISM & GRAVITROPISM

OTHER
1.) stimulates FRUIT DEVELOPMENT
2.) induces VASCULAR tissue DEVELOPMENT

35

These PLANT HORMONES WORK in concert WITH AUXINS to control CELL DIVISION, differentiation and apical dominance.

Cytokinins

36

CYTOKININS work with auxin to CONTROL ___________, __________ and __________.

Cell Division
Cell Differentiation
Apical Dominance

37

How are CYTOKININS TRANSPORTED?

Xylem Tissue

38

CYTOKININS ALONE = ?

No Cell Division

39

CYTOKININS + AUXINS = ?

Cell Division

40

1:1 RATIO of CYTOKININS to AUXINS = ?

Normal Growth (shoots & roots)

41

CYTOKININS > AUXINS = ?

Shoot Development

42

CYTOKININS < AUXINS = ?

Root Development

43

What is APICAL DOMINANCE?

INHIBITION of AUXILIARY BUDS due to PRESENCE of APICAL BUD.

44

True or False: the presence of cytokinins influence whether or not the auxiliary bud grows.

TRUE

45

Where are GIBBERELLINS produced?

Apical Meristems
Young Leaves
Embryos (seeds)

46

What are the THREE (3) major FUNCTIONS of GIBBERELLINS?

Stem Elongation
Fruit Growth
Germination of Seeds

47

True or False: gibberellins have a great affect on roots.

FALSE,

GIBBERELLINS have LITTLE EFFECT on ROOTS.

48

In order for FRUIT to DEVELOP and GROW ____________ and __________ must be present.

Gibberellins
Auxins

49

This is the UPTAKE of WATER due to LOW WATER POTENTIAL resulting in the BREAKING of SEED DORMANCY.

Imbibition

50

FOLLOWING IMBIBITION ____________ concentrations INCREASE in the seed causing it to _____________.

Gibberellins
Germinate

51

During GERMINATION what are the digestive ENZYMES DIGESTING?

Endosperm

52

These PLANT HORMONES are involved in SLOWING plant GROWTH.

Abscisic Acid

53

What are the THREE (3) GROWTH HORMONES?

Auxins
Cytokinins
Gibberellins

54

Where are ABSCISIC ACIDS produced?

In ALMOST ALL plant CELLS

55

What are the THREE (3) major FUNCTIONS of ABSCISIC ACIDS?

Growth INHIBITION
Promote SEED DORMANCY
INHIBITION of EARLY GERMINATION

56

Why is SEED DORMANCY important?

It INCREASES the LIKELIHOOD that the SEED will DEVELOP in FAVORABLE environmental CONDITIONS.

57

ABSCISIC ACIDS > GIBBERELLINS = ?

Seed DORMANCY

58

ABSCISIC ACIDS < GIBBERELLINS = ?

Seed GERMINATES

59

Plants produce this GASEOUS HORMONE in response to STRESS.

Ethylene

60

Where is ETHYLENE produced?

Tissues undergoing CELL DEATH
AGING LEAVES
RIPENING fruit

61

This is the PROGRAMMED DEATH of certain cells or organs of a plant.

Senescence

62

This is a CELLULAR MECHANISM in which ENZYMES BREAK DOWN chemical components such as CHLOROPHYLL, DNA, RNA, PROTEINS and membrane LIPIDS.

Apoptosis

63

True or False: ethylene is always associated with senescence.

TRUE,

ethylene is ALWAYS associated with senescence.

64

This occurs in plants that LOSE LEAVES annually.

Leaf Abscission

65

True or False: leaf abscission allows plants to salvage nutrients and recycle them back into leaves in the spring.

TRUE,

LEAF ABSCISSION allows plants to SALVAGE NUTRIENTS and RECYLCE them back into leaves in the spring.

66

Where does LEAF ABSCISSION?

Abscission Layer

67

Where is the ABSCISSION LAYER located?

At the BASE of the PETIOLE.

68

During LEAF ABSCISSION _________ cells are WEAKENED by enzymes FROM APOPTOSIS.

Parenchyma Cells

69

What TWO (2) HORMONES determine LEAF ABSCISSION?

Ethylene
Auxin

70

What HORMONE is involved in HEALTHY LEAVES.

Auxin

71

The LOSS OF AUXIN and an INCREASE in ETHYLENE results in what?

Aged Leaves

72

ETHYLENE > AUXIN = ?

Abscising Leaves

73

True or False: ethylene inhibits fruit ripening.

FALSE,

Ethylene TRIGGERS fruit RIPENING.