Flashcards in Plant & Internal/External Stimuli Deck (74):
This type of STIMULI is characterized by CHEMICAL SIGNALS that are produced WITHIN the BODY and move from from one location to another.
This type of STIMULI is characterized by a variety of PHYSICAL and BIOLOGICAL stimuli produced OUTSIDE of the BODY.
This response to stimuli occurs when received SIGNALS ACTIVATE INTRACELLULAR PATHWAYS that lead to cellular responses.
This is the CONVERSION of one form of ENERGY to another.
This is the process by which a signal ACTIVATES a RECEPTOR.
These are PROTEINS that become ACTIVATED WHEN they receive a SPECIFIC SIGNAL.
What are TWO (2) LOCATIONS of RECEPTORS?
The PLASMA MEMBRANE has ___________ heads and ___________ tails.
Receptors ON the PLASMA MEMBRANE have signals that are __________.
Receptors INSIDE of the CELL have signals that are ____________.
NOT water soluble
SECONDARY MESSENGERS are molecules and ions ________ of the cell.
SECONDARY MESSENGERS AMPLIFY the signal from the ________ and TRANSFER the signal to the ________.
What are the TWO (2) common SECONDARY MESSENGERS in plants?
During the cAMP SECONDARY MESSENGER SYSTEM ____________ is the FIRST MESSENGER.
During cAMP the RECEPTOR ACTIVATES and RELEASES __________.
G PROTEIN binds to the ENZYME ___________.
During the SECONDARY MESSENGER SYSTEM (cAMP) ATP is converted INTO __________. (The SECOND MESSENGER)
During the SECONDARY MESSENGER SYSTEM (cAMP), __________ is activated which TRIGGERS a cascades of CHEMICAL REACTIONS known as _________.
In regards to the SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAY _________ is the ACTIVATION of EFFECTORS which will REGULATE one or more CELLULAR ACTIVITIES.
These are PROTEINS or ENZYMES that carry SPECIFIC FUNCTIONS.
What are the TWO (2) main types of CELLULAR RESPONSES?
Post Transcriptional Modification
This is the INTERACTION between INTERNAL and EXTERNAL STIMULI that is related to PLANT GROWTH in DARKNESS.
This is the INTERACTION between INTERNAL and EXTERNAL STIMULI that is related to PLANT GROWTH in LIGHT.
This is the RECEPTOR involved in DE-ETIOLATION's relation to SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION.
These are CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES that regulate METABOLIC FUNCTION of TARGET CELLS.
PLANT HORMONES generally AFFECT what THREE (3) things?
True or False: plant hormones are produced in one part of the plant and transported to other parts.
plant hormones are PRODUCED in ONE PART of the plant and TRANSPORTED to OTHER parts.
PLANT HORMONES TRIGGER ____________.
Signal Transduction Pathway
PLANT HORMONES lead to CHANGES such as ___________, ___________ and __________.
What are the SIX (6) types of PLANT HORMONES?
This is the MASTER PLANT HORMONE.
True or False: AUXIN is only influential up until maturity.
AUXIN INFLUENCES the plan throughout their LIFETIME.
WHERE are AUXINS PRODUCED?
Apical Meristems (shoots/roots)
Developing Seeds and Fruits
AUXINS are TRANSPORTED via __________ and __________.
What are the THREE (3) MAJOR FUNCTIONS of AUXIN? What OTHER FUNCTIONS do auxins perform? (2)
1.) STEM ELONGATION
2.) lateral and adventitious ROOT GROWTH
3.) PHOTOTROPISM & GRAVITROPISM
1.) stimulates FRUIT DEVELOPMENT
2.) induces VASCULAR tissue DEVELOPMENT
These PLANT HORMONES WORK in concert WITH AUXINS to control CELL DIVISION, differentiation and apical dominance.
CYTOKININS work with auxin to CONTROL ___________, __________ and __________.
How are CYTOKININS TRANSPORTED?
CYTOKININS ALONE = ?
No Cell Division
CYTOKININS + AUXINS = ?
1:1 RATIO of CYTOKININS to AUXINS = ?
Normal Growth (shoots & roots)
CYTOKININS > AUXINS = ?
CYTOKININS < AUXINS = ?
What is APICAL DOMINANCE?
INHIBITION of AUXILIARY BUDS due to PRESENCE of APICAL BUD.
True or False: the presence of cytokinins influence whether or not the auxiliary bud grows.
Where are GIBBERELLINS produced?
What are the THREE (3) major FUNCTIONS of GIBBERELLINS?
Germination of Seeds
True or False: gibberellins have a great affect on roots.
GIBBERELLINS have LITTLE EFFECT on ROOTS.
In order for FRUIT to DEVELOP and GROW ____________ and __________ must be present.
This is the UPTAKE of WATER due to LOW WATER POTENTIAL resulting in the BREAKING of SEED DORMANCY.
FOLLOWING IMBIBITION ____________ concentrations INCREASE in the seed causing it to _____________.
During GERMINATION what are the digestive ENZYMES DIGESTING?
These PLANT HORMONES are involved in SLOWING plant GROWTH.
What are the THREE (3) GROWTH HORMONES?
Where are ABSCISIC ACIDS produced?
In ALMOST ALL plant CELLS
What are the THREE (3) major FUNCTIONS of ABSCISIC ACIDS?
Promote SEED DORMANCY
INHIBITION of EARLY GERMINATION
Why is SEED DORMANCY important?
It INCREASES the LIKELIHOOD that the SEED will DEVELOP in FAVORABLE environmental CONDITIONS.
ABSCISIC ACIDS > GIBBERELLINS = ?
ABSCISIC ACIDS < GIBBERELLINS = ?
Plants produce this GASEOUS HORMONE in response to STRESS.
Where is ETHYLENE produced?
Tissues undergoing CELL DEATH
This is the PROGRAMMED DEATH of certain cells or organs of a plant.
This is a CELLULAR MECHANISM in which ENZYMES BREAK DOWN chemical components such as CHLOROPHYLL, DNA, RNA, PROTEINS and membrane LIPIDS.
True or False: ethylene is always associated with senescence.
ethylene is ALWAYS associated with senescence.
This occurs in plants that LOSE LEAVES annually.
True or False: leaf abscission allows plants to salvage nutrients and recycle them back into leaves in the spring.
LEAF ABSCISSION allows plants to SALVAGE NUTRIENTS and RECYLCE them back into leaves in the spring.
Where does LEAF ABSCISSION?
Where is the ABSCISSION LAYER located?
At the BASE of the PETIOLE.
During LEAF ABSCISSION _________ cells are WEAKENED by enzymes FROM APOPTOSIS.
What TWO (2) HORMONES determine LEAF ABSCISSION?
What HORMONE is involved in HEALTHY LEAVES.
The LOSS OF AUXIN and an INCREASE in ETHYLENE results in what?
ETHYLENE > AUXIN = ?