Plant Structure, Growth & Development Flashcards Preview

Principles of Biology II > Plant Structure, Growth & Development > Flashcards

Flashcards in Plant Structure, Growth & Development Deck (44):
0

This is a multicellular organ that anchors vascular plant in the soil and absorbs water and minerals below ground.

Root

1

This organ depends on water and minerals from the roots.

Shoot System

2

This the main vertical root that gives rise to lateral roots.

Taproot

3

These roots occur above ground and have been modified to support/anchor, store water and nutrients and absorb oxygen from the air.

Aerial roots

4

These roots support tall, top heavy plants.

Prop roots

5

These roots support tall trunks, especially in the tropics.

Buttress roots

6

Aid in gas exchange.

Pneumatophores

7

These roots germinate in branches of tall trees and grown down.

Strangling roots

8

This is the main photosynthetic multicellular organ.

Leaf

9

This type of leaf is a single undecided blade.

Simple leaf

10

This type of leaf is comprised of multiple leaflets.

Compound leaf

11

On this type of leaf, each leaflet is divided into a smaller leaflet.

Doubly compound leaf

12

These are vine-like structures that help stabilize the plant.

Tendrils

13

These modified leaves aid in protection from predators.

Spines

14

These type of leaves store water.

Storage Leaves.

15

These leaves produce plantlets that fall off and take root.

Reproductive Leaves

16

These modified leaves resemble petals.

Bracts

17

This is the outer covering of the plant.

Dermal tissue

18

This is responsible for storage, photosynthesis and support.

Ground Tissue

19

Responsible for long distance transport through the plant.

Vascular Tissue

20

This is the single outermost layer of tightly packed cells functioning in protection, defense, uptake and gas exchange.

Epidermis

21

Waxy hosting secreted by epidermal cells to prevent water loss.

Cuticle

22

Hair-like outgrowths of the shoot epidermis functioning in predator defense, reflecting excess and water loss reduction.

Trichomes

23

These cells regulate the opening and closing of the stomata and function in carbon dioxide and water exchange.

Guard cells

24

External to vascular tissue.

Cortex

25

Internal to vascular tissue.

Pith

26

Generalized plant cell and the least specialized. Major locations include; cortex, pith, stems, roots internal layer of leaves (mesophyll).

Parenchyma

27

These cells are grouped in strands, have thick, uneven walls and provide strength and flexibility for growth.

Collenchyma

28

These cells have thick rigid walls are strengthened with lignin and act as a skeleton for strength and support.

Sclerenchyma

29

This type of sclerenchyma cell us short, irregularly shaped and is what provides hardness to seeds and nutshells.

Sclerid cells

30

This type of sclerenchyma cell is long, slender and tapered and arranged in threads.

Fiber cells

31

This joins the leaf to the stem at the node.

Petiole

32

This is the space between the petiole and the stem.

Axil

33

This is plant growth throughout the lifetime.

Intermediate Growth

34

These are tissues that allow growth.

Meristems

35

APICAL MERISTEMS are located in tips and roots, shoots and buds and are responsible for _________.

Primary Growth (length)

36

LATERAL MERISTEMS are responsible for ____________.

Secondary Growth (thickness)

37

This adds layers of secondary xylem and phloem.

Vascular Cambium

38

This adds layers of secondary dermal tissue called cork.

Cork Cambium

39

This is a root system with a mat of thin roots that spread.

Fibrous Root System

40

This is the stalk that attaches the leaves to the stem.

Petiole

41

This is the broad surface of a leaf.

Blade

42

This is the point of attachment on the stem.

Node

43

These are portions of the stem between the nodes.

Internodes