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Flashcards in Plants And Animals Deck (87):
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What is Intraspecific

Relationship between the same species

1

What is Interspecific

Relationship between different species

2

Intraspecific relationships and harmful

Competition - -
Reproduction + +
Co-operation + +
Aggression - -

3

Interspecific relationships and harmful

Competition - -
Mutualism + +
Exploitation + -
Commensalism + o
Ammensilism - o

4

Biorhythms in plants and animals

Daily rhythms
Annual rhythms
Tidal rhythms
Lunar rhythms

5

Abiotic factors and prefix

Light - photo
Temperature - thermo
Water - hydro
Chemicals - chemo
Gravity - geo
Touch - thigmo
Sound
Fire
Wind
Substrate
Pressure

6

What is a biological clock

An internal mechanism within living organisms that control the physiological activities of an organism which change on a daily, monthly, yearly and seasonal cycles.

7

What is a tropism

A slow growth response toward or away from an abiotic factor which results in permanent cell size change

8

What is a nastic response

A rapid, reversible movement towards a non-directional abiotic factor in the environment/stimuli

9

What is auxin

Auxin is a hormone which allows a tropism response to occur

10

3 orientation responses in plants to the environment

Tropisms
Nastic
Taxes

11

Why do plants have orientation responses to the environment

To avoid unfavourable conditions and increase chances of favourable

12

What is photoperiodism in plants

A rhythmical response to a reliable environmental cue eg. Day length

13

What is phytochrome

Is a blue pigment made from protein and is in cell membranes of leaves. It allows plants to maintain a biological rhythm which is synchronised with an environmental cue

14

What are the two forms of phytochrome

P660 (Pr)
P725 (Pfr)

15

Plant relationships

Competition - -
Mutualism + +
Antibiosis - o
Commensalism + o
Exploitation + -

16

Complex animal behaviour is:

Innate - genetically inbuilt
Learned - is flexible and develops with experiences

17

Simple orientation responses in animals

Taxes
Kinesis

18

What is taxes

Involve orientation and whole body movement of an organism directly toward or away from one or more stimuli

19

What is kineses

Respond to certain stimuli by changing their rate of movement or by randomly turning without actually orientating to the stimulus

20

Two types of kineses

Orthokinesis - rate of movement
Klinokinesis - rate of turning

21

What is migration

The annual mass movement of individuals of the same species over unfamiliar surroundings from overwintering site to breeding site. It is often over a long distance and requires a trigger and methods of navigation.

22

Triggers for migration

Day length (photoperiod response), temperature, genetic predisposition and sexual maturity

23

Different methods of navigation

Landmarks - (learnt) guides animals to its destination
Solar - using sun as compass. Requires an internal clock as sun moves in the sky
Stellar - using stars as a compass to orientate star patterns such as constellations
Magnetoception - using earths magnetic field lines. Magnetic receptors contain iron oxide crystals in the olfactory organs
Chemical - use chemical/scent trails to find way
Sonar - emit sound waves which bounce back from objects. Speed of bounce allows animal to position itself in relation to object

24

What is homing

The movement of an organism to a return to home base across unfamiliar surroundings, usually on a regular basis. The distances can vary and requires methods of navigation.

25

Advantages of migration

Ensures:
Favourable climate
Good habitat and nest site for young
Abundant food

Avoidance of:
Harsh conditions
Lack of food

26

Disadvantages of migration

Distance between locations is huge
Huge amounts of energy needed
Weather conditions on route may be harsh
Navigation failure
Increased predation on route

27

What is a territory

An area that is actively defended by an individual or group

28

Advantages of maintaining a territory

Limits pop. Size and prevents overcrowding reducing disease
Distributes resources within a habitat to individuals within the pop. - resources shared but no fairly as linear hierarchy
Territories ensure safe well resources location for breeding and raising young
Familiar surroundings ensure survival from predators

29

Disadvantages of maintaining a territory

Costs energy in establishing, marking and defending and time that could be spend on other activities
Smaller territories=abundant resources
Territory size a compromise between energy gained from food against cost of defence

30

Costs and benefits of fighting for a mate

Huge time and energy costs to individuals, taken away from other beneficial activities
Fittest genes maintained and passed onto future generations

31

Resources competed for in intraspecific competition

Nesting sites, breeding territories, minerals, space, food, mates

32

Intraspecific competition involves:

Fighting/displays for a mate or territory
Competition is high as females very selective as eggs more energy, sperm less

33

What is a lek

A small area where males gather to compete with one another to establish a mating territory

34

Intraspecific cooperation involves:

Hunting, defence, protection, ineffective societies, breeding and aero/hydrodynamics

35

What is courtship

Involves attracting a mate by using signals and actions that are exchanged between male and female which leads to mating

36

Mating signals include:

Vocal, chemical, visual and touch

37

Advantages of courtship

Ensures partners are the same species to reduce wastage of gametes
Reduces aggression between individuals so they can physically mate
Selection of genetic fitness
Increases chance of pair bonding increases survival chance of offspring
Triggers physiological readiness of partners which maximises chances if successful fertilisation

38

What is pair bonding

A long lasting stable relationship between male and female which ensure cooperation during breeding and rearing of young

39

Advantages of parental care

Increases the chance of survival of the offspring as parents provide protection and nourishment (high reproductive effort)

40

What is gauses principle/competitive exclusion principle state

No two species can occupy the same ecological niche

41

Predator strategies to capture prey (interspecific relationships)

Belonging to a group, lures/snares/traps, mimicry, concealment, speed, stealth, tool use, filter feeders

42

Prey strategies to avoid predators (interspecific relationships)

Living in groups, camouflage, visual deception, chemical defence, hiding, detection and escape, startle displays, armoured defence, offensive weapons, poisonous, mimicry

43

Two types of mimicry

Batesian- harmless prey gain immunity from attack by mimicking harmful animals
Mullerian- when harmful species tend to resemble each other

44

What is home range

An area that an animal uses for food, but is not defended

45

What is hierarchy

When animals are ranked

46

Active at night

Nocturnal

47

Active at dusk and dawn

Crepuscular

48

Active in the day

Diurnal

49

What is phase shift

To change the start times of a rhythm, but not it's period

50

What is a stimulus

Anything that causes an organism to react

51

What is a circadian rhythm

Rhythm with a period of about a day (24 hours) when under constant environmental conditions

52

What is a zeitgeber

External environmental cue by which an internal clock is set

53

What is endogenous

Caused by internal factors that are independent of external stimuli

54

What is entrainment

The process of resetting an internal clock so that it is synchronised with environmental rhythms

55

Abscisic Acid

A plant growth hormone that has a variety of effects

56

Actogram

A type of graph or chart commonly used in circadian research to plot activity (present or absent) against time

57

Agonistic

Intraspecific behaviour that alternates between attack and escape

58

Antagonist

Something opposing or in conflict with one another

59

Circa annual

A cyclical variation (rhythm) that lasts approximately a year under constant environmental condition

60

Critical day length

The photoperiod above which long day plants flower and below which short day plants flower

61

Cytokinins

A group of plants hormones retarding ageing, promoting cell division and bud formation, sometimes promoting flowering and breaking dormancy

62

Pecking order

It orders animals in a group from most dominant to least dominant

62

What is reproductive effort

A certain amount of energy that the parents are prepared to put into reproduction

62

Disadvantages of parental care

There are few offspring produced
Decrease chance of survival of parent

63

Advantages of little/no parental care

Large number of offspring produced
Increase chance of survival of parent

64

Disadvantage of little/no parental care

High mortality of offspring, only few young/eggs survive to reproductive age

65

Diapause

A delay at some stage in the development of an arthropod, caused by stimuli indicating a change in environmental conditions and ended by specific stimuli

66

Dormancy

A state of temporarily reduced metabolism

67

Effectors

A cell or organ that responds to a stimuli

68

What is exogenous

Caused by external stimuli

69

Free running

A rhythm is free-running when it is proceeding independently of external changes

70

Geomagnetic cues

Using the earths magnetic field for orientation

71

Hibernation

A period of dormancy of animals during seasonal cold conditions, generally to survive a lack of food

72

Hormone

Chemical secreted into a plant of animal and transported to another part where it affects growth or activity

73

Innate

Coded for by genes

74

Learned

Behaviour that is modified by experience

75

Long day plant

A plant that flowers when day-length exceeds a certain minimum length

76

Mimicry

The similarity in appearance of one species of animal to another that affords it protection from predators

77

Phase shift

A phase of a rhythm is shifted so that entrainment occurs

78

Pigment

A natural substance in plant or animal tissue that gives it it's colour

79

Polyandry

The practise of a female mating with more than one male in breeding season

80

Polygamy

The practise of random mating with more than one member of the opposite sex during a breeding season

81

Polygynandry

An organised social system in which during a breeding season a female mates with several males and a male mates with several females within the social group

82

Receptors

A cell or organ able to detect changes in the environment

83

Short day plant

A plant that flowers when day-length is less than a certain minimum length

84

Stimulus

An aspect or change in an individuals external or internal environment that causes some sort of response