Plasticity and regeneration in the Nervous system Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Plasticity and regeneration in the Nervous system Deck (30):
1

Axotomy

is the cutting or otherwise severing of an axon

2

Wallerian or anterograde degeneration

-the degeneration of the distal end an axon of the PNS and its myelin sheath when it undergoes axotomy

3

What cells will clear the degenerating axons and myelin sheath of a nerve who underwent anterograde degeneration

tissue macrophages

4

Schwann cells stay in the damaged area undergo mitosis and proliferation
promoted by

macrophages

5

Schwann cells recruited and influenced by macrophages will do what to a PNS neuron that underwent an axotomy

The Schwann cells will form a column that connects the cut end of
the axon with the original target. This column will be important for guiding a regenerating
axon back to its appropriate target.

6

The proximal end of the axon will also die back by ___degeneration,

retrograde

7

In early stages of regeneration, the cell will exhibit chromatolysis. Define chromatolysis

disruption of Nissl bodies

8

Nissl bodies

These granules are of rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) with rosettes of free ribosomes, and are the site of protein synthesis. It was named after Franz Nissl, a German neuropathologist who invented the Nissl staining method.

9

In early stages of regeneration, the cell will exhibit ___ and ___

chromatolysis and eccentric relocation of the nucleus.

10

bouton shedding

presynaptic inputs to axotomzed neurons disconnect and withdrawal
-shedding of inputs
-helped by glia; they insert themselves and peel of synapses

11

Transneuronal degeneration

anterograde (innervated neuron dies) or retrograde direction (innervating neuron dies).

12

if regenerated axons are able to reach their target, are they remyelinated?

yes
-Determination of the extent of myelination is made by the characteristics of the axon and not the Schwann cell

13

Collateral and paraterminal sprouts originate from ____ or _____, respectively, and are stimulated by factors released from the ____

-nodes of Ranvier (collateral) or axon terminals (paraterminal)
-stimulated by factors released from denervated tissue

14

What findings suggest that axotomy removes a retrogradely transported neutropic signal derived from the target?

-Collateral sprouting can be induced in motor neurons simply by inactivating the target muscle
-Conversely, sprouting following damage in adjacent axons can be blocked by electrically
stimulating the target muscle.

15

After axotomy, local application of NGF to the soma
can ___ chromatolysis and bouton shedding.

-prevent

16

Administration of the microtubule poison colchicine
can also ____chromatolysis and bouton shedding.

induce

17

colchicine

-microtubule poison that can induce chromatolysis and bouton shedding

18

The best known of these myelin-associated growth inhibitors is ___

-Nogo-A.

19

laminin and fibronectin

-growth factors that are found in the PNS and CNS extracellular matrix during development, but only in the PNS in adulthood

20

oligodendrocytes in the CNS synthesize glycoproteins that ____

-suppress axon outgrowth

21

what did Aguayo et al. show about regeneration of the optic nerve?

-the optic nerve was transected near the eye and they
demonstrated that the axons of retinal ganglion cells would not grow through a resected
optic nerve
-However, they would regenerate through a Schwann cell column from a peripheral nerve graft
-Regenerated retinal ganglion cell axons grew through the graft and innervated the superior colliculus, a normal target.

22

failure to show regeneration in the CNS is a property of the____

- supporting cells and not the neurons

23

what cells were injected in an area of axotomy that actually improved recovery and even facilitated walking in a paraplegic patient

olfactory ensheathing cells

24

what are some areas where adult neurogenesis has been observed?

-olfactory epithelium/ bulb
-hippocampus- (especially -dentate gyrus)
-caudate nucleus

25

what would be the consequences of no neurogenesis

-the DG either has to encode new information at the expense of old
information or face saturation.

26

Occasional spontaneous cell loss is often
followed by _____and
reactive _____ from surviving
local axons.

collateral sprouting and synaptogenesis

27

Jon Kaas showed that somatotopic maps are

Somatotopic maps are
modifiable by experience

28

Synapse strengthening

probablyaccounts for earlyreorganization, implying that weak connections
exist that are not readily apparent in physiological recordings. These weaker connections can be
revealed when the dominant pathways are inactivated (or lost).

29

phantom limb sensations

-patients who have lost a hand experience cortical expansion of the
intact afferent pathways that normally terminate in areas surrounding the hand representation
(face, shoulder, and upper torso).

30

remapping of referred sensations.

cortical expansion of the
intact afferent pathways that normally terminate in areas surrounding the lost limb