Plate Tectonic Review Flashcards Preview

Earth and Space Science > Plate Tectonic Review > Flashcards

Flashcards in Plate Tectonic Review Deck (40):
1

Which crust is the densest?(oceanic or continental) What type of Rock is each made of?

Oceanic
Basalt/granite

2

What is the boundary between the crust and mantle?

Hohorovicic’s Horizon

3

Temperature and pressure __________as you go further into the Earth

Increase

4

Who was the scientist that came up with the idea of Continental Drift?

Alfred Wegner

5

What was his evidence that Alfred Wegner used?

Fossil evidence rocks climate

6

Define the theory of plate tectonics

Earth’s crust is broken into plates that move due to forces inside earth

7

What was the name of the last supercontinent?

Pangea

8

What drives the movement of the plates?

Convection currents in mantle

9

Define convection currents:

The currents in the mantle that drive plate tectonics

10

How many major plates is the earth divided into?____what causes the shifting of the plates?______________________

12
Convection currents

11

Define paleomagnetism:

Study of the record of the earth’s magnetic field in rocks

12

Why is the oceanic crust youngest at the ridges?

it is the most recently formed

13

What are subduction zones and where are they located?

at convergent boundaries where one plate is pushed under the other

14

where is crust created?

rift/ridge

15

where is crust destroyed?

trench

16

what types of tectonic plate boundaries exist?

convergent
divergent
transform

17

compare the terms ridge-push? Slab-pull?

ridge push-buayant magina pushes up driving plates apart
slab-pull- old dense heavy plate sinks

18

list and define three types of stress?

compression-squeezed
tension-pulled
shearing- pushed

19

what is a fold? Fracture? Fault?

fold-rocks bend, but do not break
fracture- rocks break but do not move
fault- rocks break and move their positions

20

what are your different types of faults? Which stress causes each?

normal-divergent
reverse-convergent
strike-slip-transform

21

which stress and fault is found along the San Andreas?

slip-strike fault

22

what is a hot spot?

volcanic activity that is not found at plate boundary

23

which type of volcano tends to be most violent?

cinder, strato, super

24

compare pyroclastic material and lahar flows.

pyroclastic flow-gas/ash that flows, lahar flow- flow of rocks/muds

25

what does the Richter scale measure?

magnitude of earthquake

26

on the richter scale how much stronger is an 8.0 than a 7.0?

32

27

what is a p-wave? S-wave? L-wave?

P-twice as fast as S-wave
S-1/2 as fast as P-wave (only in solid)
L-(surface) slowest

28

how do you locate an earthquake?

triangulation of earthquakes

29

where in the world are most earthquakes located?

ring of fire

30

what instrument records and detects earthquakes?

seismograph

31

compare the terms epicenter and focus.

focus-where fault moves
epicenter- on earth's surface directly above focus

32

what are the 5 types of mountains? How is each formed?

Fold-continents collide
Fault Break-formed by fault
Dome-molten rock pushes layers of rock
Plateau Ieroded-formed when plateau's are pushed up and erode
Volcanic-formed when molten rock erupts onto earth's surface

33

Does not pass through the earth’s interior at all

L waves

34

Squeezes and pulls rocks in the same direction as the wave travels

P waves

35

Mountains that form when large pieces of crust are tilted from faulting

Fault block

36

Mountains that form magma rises through the crust and pushes up

Dome

37

Mountains that formed tectonic movement that has squeezed rocks where continents collided

Folded

38

A vast underwater mountain chain forms at a

Ocean ridge

39

Stress is that cause material to pull apart

Tension

40

What type of fault forms as a result of horizontal compression

Reverse