Pleural Effusions & Thoracocentesis Flashcards Preview

Emergency Medicine > Pleural Effusions & Thoracocentesis > Flashcards

Flashcards in Pleural Effusions & Thoracocentesis Deck (15):
1

3 Mechanisms by which Fluid Accumulates in the Pleural Space

Increased drainage of fluid into space
Increased production of fluid by cells in the space
Decreased drainage of fluid from space

2

Define Intrapulmonary Pressure

Pressure within the alveoli

3

Define Intrapleural Pressure

Pressure in the pleural cavity
Always negative pressure

4

When can intrapleural pressure become positive?

Fluid collects in the pleural space making the lung unable to expand fully

5

Define Pleural Effusion

Abnormal accumulation of fluid in the pleural space

6

Main Causes of Pleural Effusion

CHF
Liver failure
Infection
Atelectasis
Cancer
Trauma

7

Define Hemothorax

Blood in the pleural space

8

How does blood get into the pleural space?

Blood vessel ruptures into the space
Aortic aneurysm leaks blood into the pleural space

9

Pleural Fluid Types

Transudate
Exudate
Empyema
Chyle
Hemothorax

10

Differentiate Transudate from Exudate

Transudate: no protein in fluid
Exudate: protein in fluid

11

Describe an Empyema

Pus
Infection
Abscess like

12

Describe Chyle

Milky appearance from fat droplets or lymph

13

Imaging in Pleural Effusion

CXR
CT
US

14

Usual Causes of Massive Pleural Effusions

Cancer
Tuberculosis

15

Technique of Thoracentesis

Localization of pleural fluid
Preferably 5-6th intercostal space
Sterilize insertion site
Anesthetize
Removal of fluid with syringe
Follow-up radiography
Catheter with 3-way stopcock
Removal of fluid gradually
Finish when pleural pressure is less than -20 mm H2O