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Is defined as the art and science of installing pipes, fixtures, and other apparatus to convey and supply water in buildings and to dispose and discharge waste water and other liquids, gases, and other substances out of the buildings in safe, orderly, healthy, and sanitary way to ensure health and the sanitation of life and property.



Refers to a person who is skilled in the field of sanitation.



Refers to an individual who worked on the sanitary field of ancient Rome.



A metal used as plumbing materials by the Romans. Meant Lead and preferred for its malleability and resistance to acids.



Source of water supply and their means of transportation back before 40s decade.

Rainfall, river, springs, well, creeks, conveyed through Bamboo Pipes, By Man Himself, or by Animal Drawn Carts


Two main objectives of Plumbing

Supply water and Remove waste discharge


Conditions for an effective water supply in building.

Sufficient amount of water to provide each fixture; To prevent back-flow into the water supply system.


The system should accomplished the following:

Fast removal of waste with minimum leakage and stoppage; To prevent the entry of house vermin and obnoxious gases


All plumbing design and installations are governed by a set of rules and limitations prescribed by the National Plumbing Code, which provides that: "All drainage system must conform with a set of requirements enumerated as follows:

1. Tightly Connected and Sealed 2. Properly Inclined 3. Adequate Clean out 4. Provision of Ventilation Pipe 5. Suitable trap for each fixture except water closet 6. Must be vented to avoid back flow and back siphonage.


To anyone, the word plumbing connotes fixtures and piping installations that will supply water and dispose waste in various forms. Waste is classified into two types:

Solid Waste and Liquid Waste


Waste is classified into two types. One of this is being discharged by water closet.

Solid Waste


Waste is classified into two types. One of this are waste that are coming from various fixtures other than the water closet or urinal.

Liquid Waste


Solid and Liquid waste are the two primary types of waste. These types of waste are also conveyed and disposed of by two types of drainage pipe. What are these pipes.

Soil Pipe and Waste Pipe


Any pipe that conveys waste from various fixtures other than the water closet and urinal is called -

Waste pipe


Those pipes that convey waste coming from the water closet and the urinal is called -

Soil Pipe


Unlike the waste pipe pipe, that is exclusively to receive discharges coming from the fixtures only, while the ________ can accept both wastes from water closet, urinal, and other fixtures.

Soil pipe


The drainage installation is sometimes referred to as DWV which means

D for drainage of solid waste, W for waste coming from various fixtures other the water closet, and V is for ventilation piping


A vent that does not carry water or water borne wastes.

Dry Vent


For the past several decades, the most popular and generally specified material for drainage system in buildings is the _______. It is durable, conveniently installed and answer to the most of plumbing needs of all types of building less than ________ high. However, buildings taller than this height do not specify this type of iron because of constant vibrations which causes water leak of the pipe joints.

Cast Iron Pipe; 25 story high


This type of cast iron pipe is generally used for building installation.

SV type


This type of cast iron pipe is classified as extra duty pipe used for underground installation

XV type


*Cast iron pipe has four Varieties

Standard Pipe; Single hub pipe; Double Hub pipe; Hubless Pipe


A pipe made from alloy of cast iron and silicon. It is widely used in chemical laboratories, industries and other installations where acid wastes are being discharge. Basically this type of pipe is brittle in character and requires stronger support for each pipe installed horizontally to prevent sagging of joints.

Acid resistant Cast Iron Pipe


Is made of asbestos fibers and Portland cement. The thickness of the pipe is twice as that of the standard cast iron pipe. This pipe could be used as soil, waste, and ventilation pipe and downspout. This kind of pipe is superior for embedment in concrete structure for having the same material properties.

Asbestos Pipe


This pipe material is the cheapest among the sewer pipes. It is sometimes recommended for house sewer and for septic tank installation. This type of pipe is light in weight, slightly flexible which could take slight soil movement without danger of cracking or pulling out from its joints. However, excessive hot water or chemical flow may soften or damage the pipe.

Bituminous Fiber Sewer Pipe


Revit city password



One of the oldest materials used for sewer lines. It is made out of clay, cast into length of 75cm treated with glazing compound. The pipe os heated in a large kiln under a temperature of 1370 degrees Celsius, making it impervious to moisture. It is highly resistant to acid wastes. It is a durable material for under ground installations like public sewer, house sewer or storm drain. Being made of clay, its physical property is brittle. Hence, it should not benlaid on unstable ground base.

Vitrified Clay Pipe


The vitrified clay pipe is heated in a large kiln under a temperature of ________, to make it impervious to moisture and acid wastes.

1370 degree Celsius


This pipe material is also one of the oldest plumbing materials used by the Egyptians, the Greeks and the Roman builders as soil and waste pipe. Lead is highly resistant to acid and is suitable for underground installations. But because lead is poisonous and injurious to human health, it is never used to convey water for human consumption.

Lead Pipe


A type of pipe material made out from mild steel. Drawn through a die and welded, cast into 6 meters long. This type of pipe is easily corroded by alkaline and acid water. The carbonic acid in water, attack the zinc coating and ultimately the steel itself. It is subject to deposits of salt and lime that gradually accumulate and finally choke the flow of water. This pipe material deteriorate faster when used as hot water supply line.

Galvanized Steel Pipe


This pipe material is better in quality the the steel pipe for plumbing installation. Test showed that this pipe is more resistant to acid waste than the steel pipe

Galvanized Wrought Iron Pipe


This pipe material is one of the most expensive types of pipe. This pipe is made of an ally or zinc and copper mixed at 15% and 85% proportion respectively. Because of its smooth interior surface and resistance to acid, this pipe became superior material for waste and water supply installations. This pipe are of the recessed type similar in design with galvanized steel pipe.

Brass Pipe


This type of pipe material is durable and extremely corrosive resistant material. It is easy to install compared with other types of pipe. This material is classified into three types namely K type, L type and M type.

Copper Pipe


This type of copper pipe is the heaviest. It is suitable for underground installations.

K Type


This type of copper pipe is lighter than the type K. Available in both the rigid and flexible form. It is commonly used in residential water supply line and for radiant heating installations.

L type


This type of copper material is the thinnest and available only in a rigid form. This type of copper pipe is specially designed for small water supply lines and for radiant heating installations.

M type


In installing hot water line, the use of _________ pipe should be avoided because _________ on this pipe is higher than the smaller one.

Larger; Heat loss


Plastic or synthetic pipes was developed in _______ in the mid year of ________.

Germany; 1935


Acid Resistant cast iron pipe is mainly used for this purpose.

Chemical laboratories, industries and other installations where acid wastes are being discharge.


Types of Plastic Synthetic Pipes

Rigid Type and Flexible Type


6 Rigid type of plastic pipes are:

1. Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) 2. Chlorinated Polyvinyl Chloride (CPVC) 3. Unplasticized Polyvinyl Chloride (uPVC) 4. Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS) 5. Polypropylene (PP) 6. Styrene Rubber Plastic (SR)


2 types of flexible synthetic Pipe.

1. Polyethylene (PE) 2. Polybutylene (PB)


The _____ and _______ type of synthetic plastic pipe are in coil form available at ________ meters and _______ meters respectively.

Polyethylene (PE) and Polybutylene ( PB); 30 meters and 150 meters in coil form.


The plastic pipe being used for hot water lines are the: (3)

Chlorinated Polyvinyl Chloride (CPVC); Polyvinyl Dichloride (PVDC); and the Polypropylene (PP)


PVC pipe fittings weighs about 1/5 of the metal pipe. They are easily and quickly installed through _________.

Solvent Cement


PVC pipe can be connected to existing metal pipe using a _______________.

Threaded Adapter


Certain chemicals such as ______________ should not be poured in PVC or any other drainage pipe.

Methyl-Ehtyl-Ketone (Acetone), paint remover, paint brush cleaner.


Perplexing meaning



The first plastic material introduced about 100 years aho was called ______.



A plastic pipe material developed in 1905 was _________



In 1972, approximately 4,500 states, country and city Codes permitted the use pf plastic pipe for all or a portion of the plumbing system. The plumbing code that was promulgated by the Association of Plumbing Officials and the Plumbing Contractors was called __________.

Model Code


A highly heat-resistant fibrous silicate mineral able to be woven into fabrics, used in brake linings and in fire-resistant and insulating materials



A black viscous mixture of hydrocarbons obtained naturally or as a residue from petroleum distillation, used for road surfacing and roofing.



Convert into glass or a glass-like substance, typically by exposure to heat.

Vitrify/ gawing parang salamin


Coat (iron or steel) with a protective layer of zinc.



able to be kept; not perishable.

Durable/Pang matagalan


Commercial length of cast iron pipe is ___________cm long with diameters ranging from ________ to __________mm.

150cm; 50mm; 150mm


A type of cast iron pipe that is used for a well-fitted hub and spigot connections.

Standard Pipe


This type of cast iron pipe is recommended when the length of pipe is needed is more than 150cm long wherein cutting is not necessary.

Single Hub


This type of cast iron pipe is preferred when a piece of pipe needed is shorter than 150cm long. When the pipe is cut, both ends has hub to serve as joint connector.

Double Hub


This type of cast iron pipe is used in lieu of the single hub to do away with caulking of joints. It is cheaper and easily connected using a neoprene rubber sleeve.

Hubless pipe


Effective length for Cast Iron Pipe: (Pipe with Hub)

2" and 3" = 143mm 4 - 6" = 142mm


Effective Length for Cast Iron Pipe (Hubless Pipe)

150mm for diameter of cast iron pipe


Additional Length in Cast Iron Pipe: List Down 2" (50mm) to 6" (150mm)

2" - 62mm Engagement Length 3" - 68mm Engagement Length 4" - 75mm Engagement Length 5" - 75mm Engagement Length 6" - 75mm Engagement Length


(Cast Iron Pipe) Table: Quantity of Oakum in Pipe Joints

2" - .05kg 3" - .08kg 4" - .15kg 5" - .23kg 6" - .35kg


(Cast Iron Pipe) Table for quantity of Lead per Joint

2" - .5kg 3" - .8kg 4" - 1kg 5" - 1.5kg 6" - 2kg


Fill up the following:


What plumbing tool is in the image:

Snap Cutter


From figure presented, find the length of the cast iron pipe required to connect the installation, and determine what type of pipe should be recommended and why?

1. The length of the face distance is 120 centimeters. Refer to Table 3-3, the additional length for a 50mm (2") pipe is 6.2 centimeters

Add: 120 + 6.2 = 126.2 centimeters


2. This is the length of the pipe required to connect the installation. As to the type, DOUBLE HUB is appropriate because the length required is less than 150 centimeters. The excess pipe with hub after cutting could be used on other joint requiring hub.


From Figure 3-6, find the number and length of the cast iron pipe required using 100 mm (4") diameter.

1. The Face to face distance is 360 centimeters. From Table 3-3, the additional engagement lengthof a 100 mm (4") pipe is 7.5cm, thus, the two end engagement length is: 7.5 + 7.5 = 15 centimeters


2. The total length required is:

360+15=375 centimeters


3. Divide the total length by the effective length of one pipe:

375/142 = 2.62 pipes


4. The whole number 2 means two pipes at 150 cm long. The amount of .62 means the fractional part to be cut or taken from one pipe (.62 * 1.50). In short, this is less than one pipe length.


5. Therefore: the pipes required are:

2 pieces 100 mm at 150 cm = 3.00 meters

1 pice 100mm at .93 cm = .93 meters

Total Length = 3.93 meters


The installation as shown on figure 3-7 specify the use of 75 mm diamter hubless pipe. Find the number of pipes and the neoprene rubber sleeves including the accesories required.

1. The installation distance is 6.50 meters. Refer to Table 3-2, the effective length of a 75mm hubless pipe is 1.50 meters.


Divide by the effective length:

6.50/1.50 = 4.33


2. The installation therefore requires 4 hubless pipes and (.33 x 150) length of one pipe is 49.5cm long.


3. The total number of pipes required will be:

4 pcs 75 mm x 150 cm hubless pipe and 1 pcs 75mm x 49.5cm long


4. By direct counting, the neoprene rubber sleeves and other accesories are:

5 pcs neoprene rubber sleeves

5 pcs stainless steel shild

10 pieces screw clump


Working with galvanized steel pipe is somewhat difficult because of its rigidity and the threading processes involved, plus the joining operations. The face to face method is applied conveniently in measuring the length for a connection. however, allowance for the thread that will enter into the fiiting should be provided. Working with galvanized steel pipe involve the following considerations: (4)

1. Direct Connection

2. Measuring and Cutting

3. Threading Operations

4. Sizing of the pipes


refers to the manner of planning the layout and re-routing of the pipes to reach the point of service. All pipelines should be installed as short and direct as possible. The number of fittings and pipe cutting plus the threading work can be reduced to the minimum required if the plumbing layout was planned carefully.

Direct Connection


Errors commited in the ____________ of pipes, may mean additional pipes and fittings, cost of labor, and the risk of water leakage. The face to face methods of measuring and cutting of pipe connection is considered the most reliable. The procedures were already explained in connecting cast iron pipes.

Measuring and Cuttings


On this principle, steel pipe should be held rigidly with a proper holding tools. Cutting is done by using a 14-teeth per inch hacksaw blade applying forwardstrokes at the rate of about one stroke per second. Remember that fast cutting will overheat and break the blade.

Cutting and Threading Operations


The size of galvanized iron pipe is the diameter of its hole not the outside diameter. In the absence of a measuring caliper, the ______ of apipe can be known by measuring the _______ of the pipe with a string.

Inside circumference; Outside Circumference


Unable to bend or be forced out of shape./ Matibay, Mahigpit, Matigas



Pivoted Mandrel/Mandrel Bender


Copper Tube


PPR - Polypropylene Random


Another way of bending  copper is by using __________ to produce a smooth clean curve.

Steel spring inserted inside the pipe


Emery Cloth


Soldering Flux


Joining of Copper Pipes: (3)

1. Clean Pipe with Emery Cloth. 

2. Apply Flux

3. Rotate to spread flux


The simplest way of joining plastic pipe is by cementing called ________. It takes only about 1/4 the time it takes to assemble bell and spigot joints.

Solvent Welding


Engagement Length of a 6.00 meters pipe.

2 1/2" =  7.5cm

3" = 12cm

3 1/2" = 13cm

4 1/2" = 14cm

6 1/2" = 16cm

9" = 18cm

11 1/2" = 20.5cm



Available Sizes in Plastic Pipes

2 1/2"


3 1/2"

4 1/2"

6 1/2"


11 1/2"



A shown in figure, a water supply line is to be installed using a 6.00 meters long plastic pipe with a diameter of 160mm. List down the materials required.

1. The face to face distance is 28.50 meters

2. The effective length of one 6.00 meters pipe is equal to the laying length minus the telescopic length.

6.00m - .162m = 5.84m

3. Divide the face to face distance by the effective length of one pipe.

28.50m/5.84 = 4.88 pipes

4. This simply means, we need 4 pipes at 6.00 meters long plus .88 of one 6.00 meters pipe.

.88 x 6.00m = 5.28 meters

5. Solve for the additional engagement length at the two ends. 

16 x 2 = 32 centimeters or .32 meters

6. Add step 4 and 5: 5.28 + .32 = 5.60 meters

7. Therefore, the materials required are:

4 pcs 160mm x 6.00m plastic pipe single hub and 1 pc 160 mm pipe cut to 5.60 meters hubless pipe.


Pipe Cutter


Monkey Wrench


Basin Wrench


Strap Wrench


Chain Wrench


Stillson Wrench


Pipe Wrench


Yoke Vice




It is sometimes necessary to offset a run of pipe around a light fixture, a post or other obstruction. An offset can be made using 90 degrees or 45 degrees elbow. The _____ is better because there is less friction and therefore less pressure when this fittings are used.

45 degrees fittings


Ratio of travel to Offset for 45 degree fittings



Propane Torch


Yarning and Calking Iron


Blow Torch


Melting pot and Ladle


The daily average volume of human waste or excreta per capita is about _______ of ces and ________ of urine. When diluted with water at the rate of 30 to 100 gallons per day to form sewage, the solid cotent becomes a very small portion expressed in milligrams per liter.

80 grams of feces and 950 grams of urine


Of the total sewage solids, about _____ is organic and are subject to rotting.



Types of Sewage Disposal System. (4)

1. The Cesspool

2. The Privy

3. The Septic Tank

4. The Public Sewer Line


Is a hole in the ground curbed with stones, bricks, concrete hollow blocks, or other materials laid in such a manner as to allow raw contaminated sewage to leach into the soil. The organic wastes accumulate and finally disposed of by disintegration process.

The Cesspool


The ______ is a concrete sealed vault with a wooden shelter constructed for the collection of raw sewage. The disintegration of excrement is accomplished in the same manner as in a cesspool. It is objectionable because of the danger of contaminating the source of water supply.



The _______ is a device or receptacle used to expedite the decomposition of the elements contained in a raw sewage waste. Raw sewage consists of water, and settleable solid called organic maerials that can be precipitated in a septic tank in a very short time.

Septic Tank


The _________ is a public sewage system, operated and maintained by the government  consisting of a sewage treatment plant that conveys the raw sewage from buildings and houses to a disposal system.

Public Sewer Line


The public sewer line is classified into three types according to the kind of waste it disposes: (3)

1. The Combination Public Sewer

2. The Sanitary Sewer

3. The Storm Drain


Is the oldest type of public sewer that conveys both storm water and sanitary wastes. This type of public sewer is already obsolete and no longer allowed by sanitary authorities.

Combination Public Sewer


Is a public sewer facility that carries regular sanitary wastes only. It terminates in a modern sewage dispersal plant. Rainwater is not permitted to enter into this type of public sewer.

Sanitary Sewer


The Sanitary Sewer is classified into two types:

The Intercepting or Trunk Line Sewer; and The Tributary or Contributing Sewer


Is a sanitary sewer that conveys sanitary waste to a dispersal plant. It is commonly made of concrete pipe that varies in sizes from 0.60 to 3.00 meters in diameter. The pipes are laid underground to a minimum depth of about 3 meters, depending upon the natural contour of the ground.

Intercepting Sewer


Is classified as an intercepting sewer branch. The pipe is mae of either vitrified clay or concrete pipe laid in an open trench. It is generally smaller in diameter installed not more than 3 meters below the street grade and terminate into the intercepting sewer.

Tributary Sewer


Is another kind of public sewer line that carries storm water. It terminates in a natural drain such as canals, lakes or rivers.

Storm Drain


Is classified as a device of the main and storm sewer. It serves as man's access for inspection, cleaning and repair. It is constructed out of bricks, stone, adbe or concrete at an interval distance from ____ to _____.



The manhole diameter varies from _______ to _______ centimeters provided with iron rungs to serve as ladder for the maintenance crew to reach the bottom. It is provided with a well-fitted cover on top, leveled with the road surface.

90 - 120 cm


Length of one pipe for sanitary sewer

1 meter


Percentage to consider to subtract with the total length of sanitary pipe due to total gap of pipe from each joint ranging from 3 - 5 centimenters.  

3% - 4%


Is a receptacle or vault used to collect organic waste discharged from the house sewer. The main function of this receptacle is to liquefy and precipitate solid waste purifying odorous materials.

Septic Tank


The main function of septic tank is to: 

Liquefy and precipitate solid waste odorous materials.


Sewage that was discharged into the tank is retained. And during its retention period, about ____ to ____ of the suspended solid of the sewage is removed largely by sedimentation to form a semi-liquid substance called _____.

60 - 70%; Sludge


Sewage that was discharged into the tank is retained. And during its retention period, about 60 - 70% of the suspended solid of the sewage is removed largely by sedimentation to form a semi-liquid substance called sludge. The sludge accumulates at the bottom of the septic tank. Parts of the solids are formed into floating scum. Both the scum and the sludge are processed by anaerobic bacteria and transforming them into liquid and gases.



The solid matter is reduced in sizes and consequently changed in character. The septic tank therefore, combines two processes; ______ in the upper portion of the tank and _____ of the accumulated sludge at the bottom.

Sedimentation; Anaerobic Decomposition


Decomposition of organic matter from human waste is a bacteriological process caused by: (3)

Aerobic bacteria called aerobes; Anaerobic bacteria called anaerobes; Facultative Bacteria


The life process of Aerobic bacteria is in the presence of ____.

Material Oxygen


The Anaerobic Bacteria on the other hand, function in the absence of ____.

Free Oxygen


Facultative Bacteria also functions with or without _____.

free oxygen


The human waste or excreta are decomposed, until the organic matters are transformed into materials that could no longer be utilized by the bacteria in their life process. The process of decomposition is regarded as ____.



Decomposition caused by anaerobic bateria which is sometimes referred to as _______, is accompanied by _______.

Putrefaction; Bad Odors


________ decomposition is not accompanied by unpleasant odor.



A sewage that turns dar and smell unpleasantly due to anaerobic deomposition is called _______.



Minimum height from entry pipe to bottom of  Digestive and Leaching Chamber



This type of gas is a combination of hydrogen and carbon, a principal component of natural gas.

Methane Gas (CH4)


This type of gas is a combination of carbon and oxygen. It is the simplest oxide of carbon.

Carbon Dioxide (CO2)


This type of gas is a by-product of methane, classified as poisonous gas.

Carbon Monoxide (CO)


This type of gas evolves as a moist gas from organic waste.

Hydrogen (H2)


This type of gas is a colorless gas with offensive odor.

Hydrogen Sulfide (H2S)


This type of gas is also a colorless gas having irritating odor.

Sulfur Dioxide (HO2)


There are different gases produced inside the septic tank ranging from organic to non-organic gases. These are: (6)

Methane Gas

Carbon Dioxide

Carbon Monoxide


Hydrogen Sulfide

Sulfur Dioxide


Septic Tank is constructed from either of the following materials: 


1. Reinforced Concrete

2. Plastered Concrete Hollow Blocks

3. Prefabricated Asbestos

4. Thin Metal and Plastic


*The most popular and widely used material for construction of septic tank is plastered concrete hollow blockas or reinforced concrete. Others have not gained acceptance due to cost and durability.


The minimum inside dimension of a septic tank is _____ centimeters wide by ______ centimeters long.

90cm; 150cm


For effective decomposition of the organic materials inside the septic tank, a ______ depth of the liquid content is necessary.



* It is not impractical though, to construct a tank of greater depth, provided, that the depth should nt be deeper than the natural ground water table.


The invert is extended down the liquid of the tank not more than ______. This is to assure smooth delivery of the incoming sewage below the scum line.

30 cm


____ refers to the lighter organic materials that rises to the surface of the water.



The bottom of the digestion chamber should be _________. The purpose is to gather the settled organic materials into one mass to favor the propagation of the anaerobic bacteria.

sloped to one low point


Septic tank for large plumbing installation are provided with suspended compartment attached to the ceiling slab. The ______ is extended down the bottom of the tank about _____ below the scum line. Each compartment of the tank separated by this plate is provided with manhole.

Baffle Plate; 40cm


The septic tank, should be constructed near the surface of the ground, because the correction of the waste depends upon the extent of oxidation and the existence of anaerobic bacteria. Another kind of bacteria that split and digest the effluent is the ________. A kind of bacteria that surice only in the subsoil not more than ________ below the surface. Oxidation of the effluent deeper than this depth would become extremely difficult.

Aerobic bacteria; 150 centimeters


For a family of 6 persons, the minimum tank capacity should be approximately _____ cubic meters with a minimum size of ____ wide by ____ long and ____ depth.

1.30 cubic meter; 90cm wide; 150cm long; 120cm depth


Technical Data in determining Volume of Septic tank: 

For residential buildings to serve larger number of people, allocate of liquid per person:

.14 to .17 cu.m.


Technical Data in determining Volume of Septic tank: 

For small residential house to serve up to 12 persons, the chamber should have a liquid content of not more than:

2.0 cu.m.


Technical Data in determining Volume of Septic tank: 

For school, commercial and industrial establishments, the volume of the septic tank should not be less than:

.057 cu.m nor more than .086 cu.m/ person


Determine the size of a septic tank to serve 200 persons in a commercial establishment.

1. To determine the volume of a septic tank, refer to the technical data of information. For a commercial establishment we find the value of .057 cubic meters. Multiply:


200 persons x .057 = 11.4 cu.m.


2. Assume 1.20 meter width of the tank per 100 persons. For 200 individuals multiply:

200 x 1.2 = 2.40 meters width


3. The maximum depth of a septic tank liquid is 1.50m. Solve for the length of the septic tank.

LxWxD = Volume

L=11.40/ 2.40 x 1.50

L= 3.20 meters


4. The value of L is only for the length of the digestion chamber. Divide by 2 then add result to the value of L to include the leaching well.

L + L/2 = (3.20/2) + 3.20

= 4.80 meters


A motel with toilet and bath, and kitchen facilities will serve a maximum of 100 persons. Determine the capacity and dimensions of the septic tank.

1. Refer to table 4-2. Under motel with bath, toilet and kitchen, the waste per person per day is 50 gallons. Multiplied by 100 persons is 5000 gallons a day.

2. Using the formula: 

V= 1.125 + .075Q

Where: V = Liquid volume of the tank in gallons

Q = The daily sewage flow in gallons

1.125 and .75 is constant value.

3. Substitute, V = 1.125 + (0.75 x 5,000 gallons)

V = 3,751 gallons

4. There are 264 gallons in one cubic meter volume.

Divide: 3,751/264 = 14.20 cubic meters capacity of the septic tank.

5. To find the dimensions of the septic tank if the maximum depths is 1.50m and the width is assumed to be 3.00 meters, divide:

L = 12.2 cu.m/ (3 x 1.5) = 3.50 meters


Number of gallons per cubic meter:

264 gallons


Formula in computing a septic tank. 


V=1.125 + .75Q

Where V = Volume

Q = Gallons per day

1.125 and .75 as constant value


Quantity of Sewage Flow for:

Small dwelling with seasonal occupancy/ Boarding Houses:

50 Gallons


Quantity of Sewage Flow for:

Single Family Dwelling

75 Gallons


Quantity of Sewage Flow for:

Motels with  bath, toilet and kitchen wastes

50 Gallons


Quantity of Sewage Flow for:


150 - 250 Gallons


Quantity of Sewage Flow for:

Luxury Residences

100 - 150 Gallons


Quantity of Sewage Flow for:

Airport (per passenger)

3 - 5 Gallons


Location of the septic tank shall observe the following: (3)

1. Providing a minimum distance of 2.00 meters from the outside wall.

2. As much as possible, the septic tank should not be located closer to the doors or windows.

3. Septic tank should be at least 15 meters away from the septic tank.


Requirements for a Satisfactory Disposal of Human Waste: (5)

1. There should be no contamination of ground surfaces that may enter into the spring or wells.

2. Surface of Soil and Water should not be contaminated.

3. Excreta should not be accessible to animals, flies, cockraches, vermin and the like.

4. There should be no oder or unsightly conditions

5. Simple and economic


When repair work or cleaning is to be made, be sure that the septic tank is ______, by removing the man hole cover for few days in advance of the work. Another precaution is to supply fresh air inside the tankm while work is being done.

well ventilated


________ is smaller in size that the soi pipe. Smaller because of the kind of waste it receives from the various plumbing fixtures. Among the suspended materials found in the water waste are: Grease, Line, Matches, Hair, Garbage, and many other objectionable substances.

Waste Pipe


The drainage installation of a plumbing system comprises three major component parts: 

The Drainage; The Waste; and The Vent or simply called DWV


The ______ refers to an installation that receives and conveys discharges from water closet with or without waste coming from other fixtures.

Drainage Pipe


The ________ is any pipe in a drainage installation that receives the discharges of any fixture except water closet and conveys the same to the soil branch, soil pipe or house drain. 

Waste Pipe


Refers to a slop sink, lavatory, urinals, bathtub and the like except water closet.



The _______ in a plumbing system functions as air passage or conduit to ventilate the drainage and waste pipe installation.

Vent Pipe


When a waste pipe is not directly connected to a soil stack or house, it is called

Special Waste


General Conditions for a Good Waste Pipe Installation: (7)

1. By making the right choice of Materials

2. By Conservative use of Fittings

3. Right location of the Cleanouts

4. Right slope or grade of the pipelines.

5. Using the right size of pipe

6. Correct manner of joining pipes

7. Providing stable and rigid support


This is one consideration of the General Condition for a good waste pipe installation; "For instance any waste pipe line that conveys large amount of acid must specify acid resistant material. Example of which are fixtures serving chemical laboratories plating, engraving establishments and others that uses acid of various kinds. Refused that are coming from domestic and commercial kitchen, contains acid of different kinds but considerably in small negligible quantity and therefore does not require the use of an acid resistant pipe.

The Right Choice of Material


Pipe installations that fails or break too soon, may have been due to any of the following causes:

1. The use of too many fittings

2. The use of wrong type of fittings


Use _____ fittings on horizontal pipe changes.

Long Sweep


For vertical to horizontal direction of changes, the ______ and ____ fittings are most appropriate.

Wye and 45 degrees


The Tee fittings was designed for vertical run with lateral branches only. Its use on horizontal installation will create a tilted or crooked joint connection called _______.

Premature Waste Line Defects


Cleanout is a receptacle of the plumbing system accessible on floor, walls, or ceiling. It is equipped with _____ or ______ so designed as not to impair the aesthetical view of the room.

Plug or FLush Plate


The ideal position of horizontal waste pipe, were thos installed at 2% slope. Meaning, the pipe was installed with an inclined ratio of _______. For instance, a 3.00 meters pipe installed as a waste line will have an inclination of _______.

2 centimeter per 1 meter; 3 x 2 = 6cm


The latest scientific tests and experiments conducted by the National Bureau of Standards sponsored by the Housing and Home Finance Agency, showed that, wet venting and stack venting are safe in certain type of installations. The experiments revealed that the ___________ occurs when the grade or slope of the pipe is increased from 2% to 4%.

Trap Seal Loss


Means the loss or escape of standing water inside the P-Trap. This is usually caused by siphonage induced by rapid flow of waste inside the pipe. It is also referred to as ________.

Trap Seal Loss or Water Seal Escape


Means to flush or wash out, to remove dirt or grease by flowing through.



By increasing the size of the drainage pipe, does not guarantee effective scouring action, or self cleaning ability of the pipe. The Self-Cleaning ability is present, when ___________.

when the liquid and waste inside the pipe flow smoothly and simultaneuosly together.


Drainage pipe must be of the right size to have a liquid flow of about ____ of the pipe diameter to attain the scouring action. This is where the 2% slope becomes effective.



The National Plumbing Code Committee strongly indorsed the use of __________ as waste load in determining the size of the waste pipe.

Fixture Unit Value


Fixture Unit for Bathtub



Fixture unit for Floor Drain



Fixture unit for Kitchen Sink



Fixture unit for Residential Sink



Fixture unit for Lavatory or Wash Basin



Fixture unit for Laundry Tub



How many liters are there in 1 gallon.

3.785 Liters


Fixture unit for a Shower Bath



Fixture unit for Slop Sink



Fixture unit for Sink, Hotel, or Public



Fixture unit for a Urinal



Fixture unit for a Water Closet



Fixture unit for a combination Fixture 



Fixture unit for a One bathroom group consisting of water closet, lavatory, bathtub and overhead shower; or water closet, lavatory and shower compartment.


Fixture unit for every 15 square foot roof drain



Based on the findings of Uniform Plumbing Code Commitee, the committe finally decided to establish the "Unit Fixture" and called the water discharge as One Fixture Unit representing ________ or ______ of water discharged by the fixture in one minute interval.

one cubic foot or 30 liters 


Determine the size of horizontal waste pipe tomseve 5 urinals, 3 lavatories, 8 ahowers, and 2 slop sinks

1. 5 urinals x 5 = 25 units

3 lavatories x 1 unit = 3 nits

8 showers x 2 units = 16 units

2 slop sinks x3 units = 6 units

total of 50 units


2. Under the column of One Horizontal Branch, 50 units could be well serve by a 100 mm or 4 inches pipe


To compute the size of each fixture drain is not necessary because _________. 

The manufacturer has already probided each fixture with the right size of drain.


Waste oipe is classified into two types dependingupon the kind of fixtures  it will serve.

1. Direct waste

2. Indirect waste 


Is one with terminal directly connected to the plumbing system.

Direct waste


What is this type of urinal?

Pedestal Urinal


What is this type of urinal?

Stall Urinal


What is this type of urinal?

Through Urinal


What is this type of bathtub?

Hip or Sitz bathtub


Refers to a connection with terminal not directly connected to the pumbing system.

Indirect waste


Three types of Urinal

Pedestal, Stall, Through


3 types of bathtub

Sitz, foot, and bidet


3 types of lavatories served by direct waste

Wall hung, pedestal, and two pieces


Three types of sink served by direct waste

Kitchen, pantry, slop


2 types of showers served by direct waste

Single stall and gang shower


What type of whoer is in the image


Different types of fixtures served by a Direct Waste: (9)

1. Urinals

2. Bathtub

3. La


Fixtures served by Indirect Waste: (4)

1. Soda fountain

2. bar waste

3. Refrigeration

4. Drinking fountain


The National Plumbing Code on Soil Pipes provides:

1. That, at least one of the vertical stacks in plumbing system must extend full size through the roof for the following purposes: (3)

To ventilate and dispose off the sewar gas above the roof

To prevent siphoning of the water trap seal by force of suction.

To prevent the possibility of back pressure which may force the water seal off the fixture.


Any structure with a house drain installed, must have at least one soil stack or stack vent, extended full size above the roof not less than _____ and not be less than _____ diameter or the size of the drain whichever is smaller.

30 cm, 75mm


As a general rule, vent stack must be extended and terminate through the roof of the building. When the roof is to be used other than protectio. From the elements of weather, the vent should be extended no less than _____ above th roof.

2 meters


Size of Horizontal Fixture Branch (One Horizontal Branch)

1 1/4" - 1 unit
1 1/2" = 3 units
2" = 6 units
2 1/2" = 12 units
3" = 20 units
4" = 160 units
5" = 360 units
6" = 620 units
8" = 1400 units
10" = 2500 units
12" = 3800 units


Is the unobstructed vertical distance through the free atmosphere between the lowest opening from any pipe or faucet supplying water to a tank, plumbing fixture, or other device and the flood level rim of the receptacle.

Air Gap


Is the flow of water, or other liquid mixture or substances into the distributing pipes of a potable supply of water from any source, other than its intended source.



Refers to the backflow of used contaminated or polluted water from a plumbing fixture or vessel into a water supply pipe due to a negative pressure in such a pipe.

Back Siphonage


Refers to any group of two or more similar adjacent fixtures which discharges into a common horizontal waste pipe or soil branch.

Battery of Fixture


Is synonymous with faucet, cock, tap, plug, etc. the word faucet is preferred.



A flange that closes the end of a pipe. There is no opening for the passage of water.

Blind Flange


A controlled outlet on a pipeline used to discharge water.

Blow Off


Is any part of piping system other than the main riser or stack



Is the length of a soil or waste stack corresponding in general to a storey height, but in no case less than 2.40 meters within which the horizontal branches from one floor or storey of a building are connected to the stack.

Branch Interval


Is a vent connecting one or more individual vent with a vent stack or stack vent.

Branch Vent


Is plugging an opening with oakum, lead or other materials, that are pounded into the place or opening.



Is a branch vent that serves two or more traps, and extends from the front of the last fixture connection of a horizontal branch to the vent stack.

Circuit vent


Is a vertical vent that is a continuation of the drain to which the vent connects.

Continous Vent


Is a fixture combining one sink and tray or a two or three compartment sink or tray in one vent.

Combination Fixtures


Is a specially designed system of waste piping embodying the horizontal wet of one or more sinks or floor drainks by means of a common waste and vent pipe adequately sized to provide free movement of air abouve the flow line of the drain.

Combination Waste and Vent System


Is a drain from two or three fixture connected to a single trap. It is also called a dual vent.

Common Vent


Is any physical connection between two otherwise separate piping system, one contains potable water, and the other from unknown or questionable safety, whereby, water may flow from one system to the other direction of flow depending on the pressure differential between the two systems.

Cross Connection


Is the extended portion of a pipe that is closed at one end permitting the stagnation of water or air therein.

Dead End


The length along the center of the pipe and fitting.

Developed Length


Diameter of a pipe or tube refers to the nominal internal diameter (ID) of such pipe, except ____ and ____ tube wehere the term refers to the outside diameter (OD) of the pipe.

Brass and Copper


_____ includes, all piping within the public or private premises that conveys sewage, rainwater, or other liquid waste, to a legal point of disposal. It does not include the mains of public sewer system private or public sewerage treatment or disposal plant.

Drainage System


A vent that does not carry water or water borne wastes

Dry Vent


Is the minimum cross sectional aea at the point of water supply discharge, measured or expressed in terms of diameter of a circle. If the opening is not a circle, the diameter of a circle that is equivalent to the cross sectional area. (This is applicable to air gap)

Effective Opening


Shall apply to that portion of a plumbing system that has been installed and approved prior to the contemplated addition, alteration or correction.

Existing Work


Is a pipe connecting several fixtures.

Fixture Branch


Is the drain from the trap of a fixture to the junction of that drain with any other drain pipe.

Fixture Drain


Is a water supply pipe connecting the fixture with the fixture branch.


is a quantity in terms of which the load producing effects on the plumbing system of different kinds of plumbing fixtures are expressed on some arbitrary chosen scale.

Fixture Units


Is the total discharge flow in gallons per minute of a simple fixture divided by 7.5 gallons that provides the flow rate of that particular plumbing fixture as a unit of flow. Fixture are rated as multiple of this unit of flow.

Fixture Unit Flow Rate


Is a device located inside the tank for the purpose of maintaining water level for effective flushing of the water closet.

Flood Level


A metallic Sleeve called or otherwise joined to an opening in pipe into which a plug is screwed that can be removed for the purpose of cleaning or examining the interior of the pipe.



Is a device located at the bottom of the tank for flushing water closets and similar fixtures.

Flush Valve


Is a device which discharges a predetermined quantity of water to the fixture for flushing purposes activated by direct water pressure.

Flushometer Valve


Is the slope or fall of pipe in reference to a fraction of an inch per foot length of pipe.



A branch vent that performs its function for two or more traps.

Group Vent


Means any pipe or fitting which makes an angle of more than 45 degrees with the vertical.

Horizontal Pipe


Is the lowest portion of the inside of any pipe or conduit that is not vertical.



Is the discharge from any fixture, appliance of appurtenance in connection with a plumbing system which does not receive fecal matter.

Liquid waste


Is a pipe on the fixture side of the trap through which vapor or foul air is removed from a room or fixture.

Local Vent Pipe


In plumbing, it is a secondary pipe. In sewage, a common sewer to which no other common sewer is tributary. It receives sewage only from building sewer.



The main of any system of  continous piping is the principal artery of the system to which branches may be connected.


Is a sewer line or system directly controlled by public authority.

Main Sewer


Is the principal artery of the venting system to which vent branches may be connected.

Main vent


Are intalled receptacles, devices, or appliances which are supplied with water, or which receives or discharges liquid or liquid borne waste with or without discharge into drainage system which maybe directly or indirectly connected.

Plumbing Fixtures


This system includes the water supply distribution pipes; plumbing fixtures and traps; soil, aste and vent pipes; house drain and house sewers including their respective connections, devices and appurtenances within the property lines of premises and water treating or water using equipment.

Plumbing System


A ___ vent's primary function is to provide circulation of air between drainage and vent systems.

Relief Vent


A ____ pipe (sometimes called individual vent) is that part of the vent pipeeline which connects directly with an individual waste or group of wastes underneath or back of the fixture and extend either to the main or branch vent pipe.



Is a water supply pipe which extend vertically one full storey or more to convey water to branches or fixtures.



Is the installation of all parts of the plumbing system which can be completed prior to the installation of fixtures. This include drainage, water supply, vent piping and the necessary fixture supports.

Rough - In


An open return bend usually with inside threads, but applied also to 180 degrees bend in pipe.

Return Bend


Is a common sewer directly controlled by public authorities where all abutters have equal rights of connection.

Public Sewer


The sewage containing human excrement and liquid household waste. It is also called domestic sewage.

Sanitary Sewage


A sewer intended to receive sanitary sewage with or without industrial wastes and without the admixture of surface water, storm water or drainage.

Sanitary Sewer


Any branch in a building drain other than the primary branch.

Secondary Branch


Is a comprehensive term including all construction or collection, transportation, pumping, treatment and final disposition of sewage.

Sewerage of Sewage Work


Is a Y connection used on fire lines so that two lines of hose maybe connected to a hydrant or to the same nozzle.

Siamese Connection


A vertical pipe usually used for the storage of water, frequently under pressure.



Is a vent connecting to the drain pipe through a fitting at an angle not greater that 45 degreees or to the vertical.

Side Vent


Is any pipe that conveys the discharge of water closets or fixture having similar function, with or without the discharge from other fixtures, to the building drains (house drains) or building sewer (House sewer).

Soil Pipe


Is the vertical main of a system of soil, waste, or vent pipe.



Is a term applied to the location of fixtures in relation to the stack so that by means of proper fittings, vent may be reduced to a minimum.

Stack Group


____ is the extension of a soil or waste above the highest horizontal drain connected to the stack, it is sometimes called waste vent or soil vent.

Stack Vent


Is a method of venting a fixture or fxtures through the soil or waste stack.

Stack Venting


Are underground drain pipes that receive sub-surface or seepage water only and convey it to a place of disposal.

Subsoil Drain


A pit or receptacle at a low point to which the liquid waste are drained.



Is a fitting or device so designed as to provide when properly vented a liquid seal that will prevent the back passage of air without materially affecting the flow of sewage through it.



Is the maximum vertical depth of liquid that trap will retain, measured between the crown weir and top of the dip of the trap.

Trap Seal


Is avertical pipe installed primaritly for the purpose of providing circulation of air to different parts of the drainage system.

Vent Stack


Is a pipe or pipes installed to provide a flow or circulation of air within the plumbing system to protect trap seals siphoning and back pressure,

Vent System


Is a pipe installed in a vertical position or at an angle of not more than 45 degrees with the vertical.

Vertical Pipe


Is a pipe that conveys liquid waste from fixture that is free of fecal matter.

Waste Pipe


Is a pipe that conveys water from the water service pipe to the plumbing fixtures and other water outlets.

Water Distributing Pipe


Is the pipe from the water main or other source of water supply to the building served.

Water Service Pipe


The water supply of a building or premises consists of the water service pipe, the water distributing pipes, and the necessary connecting pipes, fitting, control valves, and all appurtenance in or adjancent to the building or premises.

Water Supply System


Is a vent that receives the discharge from wastes other than water closet.

Wet Vent


The minimum size of waste pipe for sink is ____ but because of the materials suspended in it, the practice is to use ____.

1 1/2"; 2"


Slop Sink is tapped either on floor or walls. Traps on the floor shall be ___ or ___ and ___ for traps installed on walls with a cleanout plug.

75mm; 100mm; 50mm


Recommended size of waste pipe for Scullary Sink



Recommended size of waste pipe for Pantry Sink



Recommended size of waste pipe for Factory Wash Up Sink



Recommended size of waste pipe for Lavatories



Recommended size of waste pipe for Shower Bath



Recommended size of waste pipe for Urinal



Recommended size of waste pipe for Urinal



Recommended size of waste pipe for Laundry Tub

38mm - 50mm


Recommended size of waste pipe for Bathtub

38mm - 50mm


Recommended size of waste pipe for Drinking Fountain



Recommended size of waste pipe for Lavatory Wastes



Recommended size of waste pipe for Hospital Fixtures



Soil pipe isntalled vertically is called:

Soil Stack


Soil pipe installed horizontally is called:

Soil Branch


Soil pipe must be installed before:



The soil branch that will directly receive waste from water closet shall be ____ and ____ as practicable.

Short and Direct


Soil pipes not embedded in concrete wall, columns or partitions shall be anchored rigidly by means of ____. 

Metal Hangers


Changes from vertical to horizontal directions shall be done by using these fittings.

Combination of 1/8 bend and Wye Fitting

Two 1/8 Bend

Long Sweep 1/4 Bend

1/4 Bend (Rarely and must be avoided)


Determine the soil pipe (branch) diameter to serve 8 water closets, 3 shower baths, 4 urinals, 2 slop sinks, and 3 wash basin.

100mm Soil Pipe


*if total units is < 20 units use 75mm dia. but if total units is >20 units but <160 units use 100mm dia.


At total fixture units on stack:

If total units is <60 units use ______; if total units is >60 but < 500 units use ____.

75mm dia.; 100mm dia.


No water closet shall discharge into a drain less than _____ pipe.

75mm dia. or 3"


Find the size of a soil stack to serve 2 units of water closet, 2 showers and 1 residential sink, 2 lavatories:

if total units is < 60 units use 75mm dia.; if total units >60mm and <500mm use 100mm dia., 


Therefore the answer is 50mm dia. but the soil pipe diameter minimum according to the code is 75mm dia. Use 75mm dia. meter.


Label/Illustrate Maximum number of fixture units that may be connected to: One Horizontal Branch (from 1 1/4" to 4" diameter pipe)

1 unit = 1 1/4"

3 units = 1 1/2"

6 units = 2"

12 units = 2 1/2"

20 units = 3"

160 units = 4"


Determine the size of a horizontal branch waste pipe for one lavatory, one residential sink and one slop sink.

Total fixture units is equal to 5.5 fixuture units. Therefore use 50mm diameter soil branch.


The experiment conducted by "UPCC" which means _____________ showed that a 100mm diameter soil pipe could effectively serve up to _______ fixture units.

Uniform Plumbing Code Comittee; 840 unitts (under experiment but the plumbing code state otherwise)


General conditions in installing soil branch:

1. Efficient/Sufficient Cleanout

2. Provide Cleanout whenever there is direction changes.

3. Cleanout should be same diameter with soil branch.

4. Avoid short radius pipe.

5. You may use short radium for horizontal to vertical fittings.


What diameter of a soil branch is appropriate to serve a battery of 3 water closets?

Total fixture units is 18, since it is less than 20mm you may use 75mm diameter, but the code says that there should be no 2 or more water closet shall discharge into 75mm or 3" diameter pipe.


Therefore use 100mm diameter pipe


"Not mroe than __ water closet sall discharge into any _____ diameter horizontal soil branch; house sewer or house drain.

2 water closets; 3" diameter 


Solutions to noise and condensation for soil pipe.

1. Soil pipe should not be in contact with plastered wall or ceiling.

Waste and soil pipe that are not embedded in concrete must be insulated (e.g Hair felt or mineral wall materials)

Condensation may overcome by use of anti-sweat materials


____ connections in any drainage installation should not be permitted. This portion of the plumbing system will only accumulate waste and sludge.

Dead End Connection


The National Plumbing Code on fittings and connectios of soil pipe provides that:

Prohibited Fittings:

Double Hub; Double Wye; Double Tee; on any branch of plumbing system.


______ is that portion of the plumbing system that receives discharges of all soil and waste stacks within the building and conveys the same to the house sewer.

House Drain


House drain is sometimes referred to as the __________.

Collection Line of a Plumbing System


House Drain can be classified into 4 types:

Combined Drain

Sanitary Drain

Storm Drain

Industrial Drain


______ is a type of house drain that receives discharges of sanitary waste as well as storm water. This is the oldest form of house drain when public sewers are of the combination design. This type of house drain however, is already phase out and no longer permitted.

Combined Drain


This type of house drain receives the discharges of sanitary and domestic waste only. The waste is conveyed to a public sewer, or septic tank, by the house sewer. Storm water is not allowed in the sanitary drain.

Sanitary Drain


__________ is a house drain that receives discharges from industrial equipment that contain some objectionable acid wastes. Industrial drain that contains acid wastes terminates into a separate drainage basin.

Industrial Drain


______ conveys all storm clear water or surface water waste except sanitary wastes. This type of drain terminates into lakes, rivers, dry run or natural basin.

Storm Drain


One fixture unit represents _____ liters of water per minute interval.

30 liters of water


Size of sanitary drain for a 2% slope pipe for 75mm and 100mm diameter pipe.

<18 use 75mm diameter; >18 but <84 use 100mm diameter


Before finding the size for house drain, its service must be known:

a. If the purpose is for sanitary waste, the _______ will be the basis of computation.

b. If the purpose is for storm drain, _____ will be the basis of computation.

Fixture unit load; Roof area with major rainfall


On House Drain, the Plumbing Code Provides that:

1.No water closet shall discharge less than 75mm diameter pipe.

2. No more than two water closet shall discharge into any 75mm diameter soil branch, house drain or, house sewer.


Determine the size of a sanitary House Drain to serve 6 water closets, 5 urinals, 5 shower bath, 6 wash basins, 4 floor drains and 3 combined fixture.

Total units is 90 Fixture Units. Therefore, @ 2% slope use 5", @3% slope use 4", @ 4% slope use 4" diameter.


Formula to get the grade or slope of a pipe.

% = rise/run


Provision for location of cleanout.

Adequate Cleanout

Accessible cleanout

When it terminates to fixtures or floor drains, use Y fittins nad extend the cleanout about 2: above the floor. Use 100mm diameter.

Use threaded screw

Dont use as floor drain

Trap of floor drain should not be place lower than 50cm below finish floor line.


For house drain, a cleanout shall be installed at every _______ interval distance and also at the ______.

20 meters; at the base of soil and waste stack.


House drain appliances includes:

Garage Catch Basin

House trap

Yard Catch Basin

Area Drain

Floor Drain


_______ is defined as a device installed in the house drain immediately inside the foundation wall of the building. It serves as a barrier and prevents the gases coming from the public sewer or septic tank in circulating through the plumbing system.

House Trap


__________ is a device used in a drainage system to prevent the reversal of flow. It is intalled in a house drain or branches of the house drain that are subjected to reversal flow of liquid. This is installed on the house drain, just near the foundation wall or near the toilet room under floor. It is set in a level position to obtain its full effectiveness.

Back Flow Valve


Backflow valves are constructed into two classified patterns:


1. Balanced Valve

2. Unbalanced Valve


________ is the most preferred type of backflow valve, because it has the characteristics of non-interference in the movement of air inside the drainage system. The interior mechanism consists of brass-seat into which fitted a gate counter balanced with an adjustable cast iron weight.

Balanced Valve


_____ consists of a running trap installed under the basement floor to protect it from freezing. The trap installed is equipped with a cleanout. The minimum size of this is 100mm or 4: pipe to drain basement entryways, loading platforms or driveways.

Area Drain


A _____ is defined as a receptacle used to receive water to be drained from the floor into the plumbing system. Sanitary authorities recognized this drain as plumbing fixture properly designed and located where to receive liquid floor wastes.

Floor Drain



Every floor drain shall be supplied with running water fixture located nearby. If the fixture is less than __ meters from the drain, it should be tapped but not necessarily vented.



Cause of probles and troubles in floor drains

Sand and Dirt when cleaning the floor


Trouble in the plumbing installation is very certain to happen and therefore, must be anticipated. The plumbing layout as ______ must be kept for future references in case of trouble. Without this, hit and miss repair would be very difficult and costly.

Built-in Plan


Experienced plumber will not install P-trap smaller than 3" on floor drain because:

2" diameter is too small for a human hand tools or tools to clean.


Floor drain is usually installed on: (4)

Basement Floor

Near Heating Equipment

Below Kitchen Sink

Vicinity of Laundry


The 3" diameter pipe P trap is recommended inimum size of floor drain. It should be installed not more than 30cm below the floor line.



___________ is defined as a receptacle used to catch surface water drained from cemented courts, driveways and yards. It could be a terminal for drain tile installations used to drain water from athletic fields.

Yard Catch Basin


_____ is a device designed to convey waste from garage, wash rack, grease pits, and repair floors into the house drain. Waste comiong from these areas contain objectionable elements like grease, oil, grit and gasoline that are detrimental to the drainage installations as well as the sewage disposal system. These sediments cause stoppage and affect the operation of the sewage disposal plant.

Garage Catch Basin


Most stoppage in the plumbing system were found to be caused by grease and oil contained in the waste discharges. This is more prevalent in large kitchens serving hotels, dining rooms, clubhouse and restaurrants. To overcome this problem, a device known as a _____ is installed on the waste line.

Grease Trap


The basin width of a Grease Trap should not be less than _____. The length should be from __ to ___ times its width to attain a smooth and non- agitated flow.

60cm; 3 to 4 times


The minimum depth of concrete grease trap should not be less than ___ below the outlet invert.



Catch Basin Detail

See page 62 Plumbing Design Handbook by Ar Rommel Aldaba


_______ is defined as that portion of the horizontal drainage system, which starts from the outer face of the building and terminate at the main sewer in the street or septic tank.

House Sewer/Building Sewer


Other code defined house sewer as that portion of the horizontal drainage system which starts ________ cm from the outer face of the building.



The __________ is financed and maintained by the government. Those houses along the street with main sewer line are required to connect their house sewers to the public sewer line.

Main Sewer Line


General Conditions for installing sewer pipes/house sewer.

Secure permits

Determine depth between main sewer and house sewer

Add the required 30cm ground coverings from top of concrete; 40cm of ground covering without concrete floor.

Remove manhole and measure the depth of sewer using meter stick.

The grade of house sewer could be found through the difference between the House Sewer and the depth of the Main Sewer. A leveling instrument will give a satisfactory result.

Additional grade can be made with the use of 1/8 bend considered as the most practical practical method of establishing grade. 


The old practice for sizing the House Sewer pipe is to use ___ diameter for cement or vitrified pipe. If plastic pipe, or similar interior surface, it can be reduce to ____ diameter pipe.

150mm; 100mm


How to find the slope of hhouse sewer or any pipe slope?

Height of rise = Run x %


_____ is that unit of the plumbing system that conveys rain or storm water to a suitable terminal (eg. canal to rivers, lakes)

Storm Drain


Water coming from the roof if not properly diverted might create problems like:

Settlement of Structure

Leakage specially at basement.

Disconfigured Landscape


Storm drain is classified into three types:

Inside Storm Drain

Outside Storm Drain

Overhead Storm Drain


_____ is a collector of water coming down from the downspout leading the accumulated water away from the house at a relatively low rate of flow.

Splash Pan


The _____ is sometimes located under the basement floor or within the walls of the building. This type of storm drain is conveniently found in buildings constructed along congested business district or buildings that occupieds the entire frontage of the lot.

Inside Storm Drain


The ____ is installed outside the foundation wall of the building. This type of drainage is possible on location where the lot is not totally occupied by the building.

Outside Storm Drain


The ________ is adopted when the street drainage is higher in elevation than the basement floor of the building. The purpose is to avail the gravity flow of water and installed suspended in ceiling with hangers.

Overhead Storm Drain


Size of storm drain for 2% slope from 114 sq.m - 700 sq.m.

<114 m2 use 75mm;

>114 m2 but <242 m2  use 100mm;

>242m2 but < 438muse 125mm;

>438mbut <700m2 use 150mm


What size of storm drain is adequate to serve a roof having a slope of 2% with a general dimensions of 20 x 30 meters?

since 600 sq m is greater that 438 but less than 700, answer is 150mm diameter but since single leader is not that efficient, divide the area by two. 600 sq m / 2 = 300 sq.m


The appropriate answer is 125mm, since 300 sqm is greater than 242 sqm but less than 438 sqm


The storm drain is installed providing a slope of not more than ________ per meter run. A combination of Y and 1/8 bend or a long radius fitting is appropriate for any change of direction.

2% slope per meter


_____________ is popularly known as water conductor or downspout either concealed or exposed type. It connects the roof terminal to the storm drain.

Roof Leader


The standard practice is to provide ___ terminals for roof leaders to avoid clogging and overflow.

Two or more


How large is the downspout required to drain the roof with general dimension of: Roof A = 20m x 8m; Roof B = 10m x 20m

Roof A = 160 sqm /2 = 80sqm therefore use two 75mm diameter (since 80sq meter falls within 26sq m - 175sq m)


Roof B = 200 sq m/ 2 = 100 sq. m therefore use two 75mm diameter (since 100 sqm falls within 26 - 175 sqm)


Enumerate Table 9 -2, Size of Roof Gutter and Roof Leader

1 - 10 sqm = 75mm gutter top = 38mm roof leader

11 - 25 sqm = 100mm gutter top = 50mm roof leader

26 - 165 sqm = 100mm gutter top = 75mm roof leader

166 - 335 sqm = 150 gutter top = 100mm roof leader



Determine the quantity of oakum and lead in kilograms required for a drainage installation with the following joints:

8 joints of 50mm pipe

14 joints of 100 mm pipe having 20mm lead packing

Order: 2.50 kg of Oakun

18kg peg lead


After cutting the galvanized Steel pipe, the burrs are removed from the inside edge of the pipe with _______ or _____.


After cutting, the burrs are removed fro mthe inside edge of the pipe with files or reamers. Threading of steel pipe entail a very tedious process. hence, it is important for one to know before hand the basic rules governing the threading operations enumerated as follows:

Never hold threaded parts with wrench. It will surely damage the thread.


Put two nuts on them, lock tightly, and continue the threading operations.


During the process of threading, apply motor oil reglarly to protect both the threader and the thread of the pipe.


To ensure tight and rigid connections, the threads should be slightly tapered so that the turning of the fitting will be harder the deeper you screwed.


Provide the threaded portion of the pipe with a Teflon tape in a clockwise direction before turning the fitting joint to obtain a water-sealed connection.


The use of ready made nipples ranging from 2 inches to 12 inches long was proven economical than fabricating them on site. The amount of cutting and treading as well as the time of installing is reduced substantially.


Working with plastic pipes:

Measure the face to face distance of the fittings to be connected. Add the ______________ before cutting the pipe.

Engagement Length


Working with plastic pipes:

Some plastic pipes can be cut with a sharp knife. But all can be cut with a _______. A _______ cutter should not in any manner be used in cutting plastic pipes.

Hacksaw or Handsaw; Rotary Cutter


Working with plastic pipes:


After cutting, remove the burrs inside the pipe, ream and clean the end portion of the pipe until smooth to allow full contact with the fitting shoulder. Clean the pipe end with ______________ or simply ____. However, depending upon the type of plastic being used, there are solvent that needs no cleaning of the pipe before its application.

Methy Ethy Ketone (MEK) or simply Acetone


Working with plastic pipes:


Insert the pipe into the fitting and give it a _________. The span of time from the cement application to the quarter turning should not be more than _____ secons.

1/4 or Quarter; 30 seconds


Working with plastic pipes:

Do not disturb the pipe for several minutes after the quarter turn. Wait for about _______ hours before testing the line under pressure. Drying of the cement must be far enough advance from ___ to _____ to permit use of the line.

2 hours; 15 - 20 hours


Working with plastic pipes:

Apply solvent cement liberally using _______ to the shoulder fitting and butt end of the pipe.

non-synthetic brush


Working with plastic pipes:

In the process of bending, plastic pipe is packed with ____ then heated using a flame torch or hot water. Apply pressure gently and gradually when the pipe is soft and ready for bendring. Continue bending until the desired curvature of the pipe is arrived at. A _____ for bending copper tube may be used to prevent flattering of the pipe.

Sand; Metal spring


Working with plastic pipes:

Correction or repair of lines may be done by cutting the pipe at a reasonable distance away from the side of the fitting then connect with _______ or ________.

Coupling or Socket


A _______ used on plumbing fixture is a device scientifically designed to prevent the backflow of gases coming from the septic tank or sewer line passing through the outlet of the fixture.



A ____ used on plumbing fixture is a device scientifically designed to prevent the backflow of gases coming from the septic tank or sewer lines passing through the outlet of the fixture.



In ________, when the first patented trap in the United States was innovated, manufacturers offered various forms and design to plumbing industry.



P-trap was also called ____ attributed to its form like the neck of a goose.



The column of water that is retained between the overflow and the dip of the trap is called _ or sometimes as ___.

Trap Seal; Water Seal


Water sealed P-trap os classified into two:

Common Seal and Deep Seal


The ___________ has 5cm deep water seal between the overflow and the dip that will offer resistance against abnormal conditions, only to the amount of pressure a 5cm water will develop.

Common Seal


The _ has from 7.5 to 10 cm column of liquid content between the overflow and the dip. This trap may be used under normal condition, but it is purposely designed for abnormal situation (eg. extreme head condition)

Deep Seal P trap


One advantage of the deep seal over the common seal is its greater _ quality. This is a term used to the scientific principle that water at rest tends to seek a level and maintain it.

Re-sealing quality


The P-trap is the most common and practical shape available in various sizes from ____ to ___ diameter.

32mm to 50mm


Permissible Types of Traps (2)

P-trap and Drum Trao


Objectionable Types of P-trap: (4)

Full size S and the 3/4 S-types

Bag Traps

Mechanically Sealed Traps

Light Metal Partition Traps


All traps shall be __. That is, capable of being completely flushed each time the trap operates and no sedements will remain inside to decompose.



P-trap shall be installed as near the fixture as practical not to require too long _____ between the trap and the fixture proper.

Vertical Leg


_____ vertical leg eliminates high velocity of water discharge that creates siphon, the major cause of trap seal loss.



P-trap shall be installed within ______ centimeters of the fixture ot serve. It will be accessible for cleaning through the bottom opening closed by a screw plug.



Long Run Horizontal Pipe could be used only near the drain of the ____ or _______. It is also called __________ not provided with hand-hole cleanout.

floor area or yard.; running trap


Overflow pipe from fixture shall be connected to the _____ of the trap.



Each fixture shall have its own trap. The following are exception to the rule: (3)

2 laundry and 1 sink

3 laundry trays

3 lavatories


____ is also classified as a water seal device. The name was derived from its size being large in diameter.

Drum Trap


Key features of a Drum Trap:

1. For fixtures installed on the floor. (eg. Bathtub, foot tub, or sitz tab)

2. For substantial amount of water

3. May serve as terminal for soda/bar waste.


Drum trap has 2 types:

100mm x 125mm

100mm x 200mm


Advantages of the Drum Trap:

Greater amount of water may pass through it ina shorter interval without the danger of trap seal loss.

It has a higher resealing quality than the p-trap



Permissible Traps (5) then illustrate each

Low Hub

High Hub

Stand Trap


Extra Heavy


Disadvantages of the Drum Trap (4)

It is large and cumbersome

Unsightly when exposed

Cleanout cover is above the water seal.

To clean the drum trap needs lubricant and a fiber washer at joint between the cover and the body of the trap.


Minimum Size fixture trap of the following:

Bath Tub

Bath showel Stall

Bath Sitz

Bath Foot


1 1/2"


1 1/2"

1 1/2"

1 1/2"



Minimum Size fixture trap of the following:

Combination Fixture

Drinking Fountain

Fountain Cupsidors

Floor Drains

Laundry Trays

1 1/2"

1 1/4"

1 1/4"


1 1/2"


Minimum Size fixture trap of the following:

Sinks, (Kitchen of residence)

Sinks, (Hotel or Public)

Sinks, (Large hotel or public)

Sinks (Small pantry or bar)

Sinks, (DIshwasher)

Sinks, Slop, with combined trap

Sinks, Slop, Ordinary

1 1/2"



1 1/4"

1 1/4"




Minimum Size fixture trap of the following:

Urinals Lip

Urinals, through

Urinals, Pedestal

Urinals, Stall

Wash Basin

Water CLosets

1 1/2"




1 1/4"



Every trap shall be self-cleaning. Traps for bathtubs, lavatories, sinks, and other similar fixtures shall be of either ____ (6)

Lead, Brass, Cast Iron, Galvanized, Porcelain or Enameled or Plastic


...but in no case shall the waste from bathtub or other fixture discharge into a _____. No fixture shall be double trapped.

Water CLoset


"Traps where required - each fixture shall be separately trapped by a water sealed trap placed as possible to the fixture except that a set of similar fixture consisting of not more than ______, or a set of _______ or a set of _______ may connect with a single trap.

3 wash basin; 3 laundry trays; 3 sinks


Class 1 - For _____ like fixtures in residential houses, apartment and private bathroom of hotels and similar installations.

Private Use


Class 2 - For ____ applied to fixtures in office buildings, factories, dormitories and the like for occupants use only.

Semi - Public Use


Class 3 - For ______ such as schools, gymnasium, hotels, rail road, bus station; public comfort rooms and other installation where several fixtures are installed for unrestricted use.

Public Use


______ of a plumbing system, is that portion of the drainage pipe installation, designed to maintain a balance atmospheric pressure inside the system to prevent problems like: Trap Seal Loss, Deterioration of Materials, Retardation of Flow



_____ can be attributed to inadequate ventilation of the trap and the subsequent minus and plus pressures inside the system. This is the most common and serious problem being encountered in a drainage system.

Trap Seal Loss


Trap seal loss may be attributed to any of the following factors: (4)


Back Pressure

Capillary Action



According to scientific findings, the surface of the earth is subjected to an atmospheric pressure valued about ______ Newtons at sea level. Any elevation above or below the sea level would be subjected to minus or plus pressure as the total volume of air above it is lesser or greater accordingly.



How much is a Newton?

1 Newton is equivalent to the pressure in terms of weight of a 100 grams. (eg. two pieces of Snickers bar or a 1kg of rice is equivalent to 10N)


Knowledgeable plumber must be able to correlate the principles of ____,_____, and _____ with the vent pipe installation, so that, when the system operates, it will function indefinitely.

siphon, pressure, and vacuum


A pressure less than one atmospheric pressure (65.47N) will create ______, and that with greater than one atmospheric pressure, will create a _________.

Negative Pressure; Positive Pressure


Air can be compressed, or withdrawn from a space or container. When ____, pressure greater than one atmosphere is developed. When _______ from a space is called vacuum or partially vacuum depending upon the volume of air removed. A partial vacuum, would indicate a pressure less than one atmosphere.

Compressed; Withdrawn


_______ is the result of minus pressure in the drainage system. If the trap of a common seal is open and exposed to the atmosphere, both the inlet and the outlet orifices will be under balance atmospheric pressure. As such, the tendency of water seal to move is remote.



Siphonage is classified into Two types:

1. Direct or Self Siphonage

2. Indirect or momentum Siphonage


______ occur in unventilated traps which serves as oval bottom fixtures like lavatories or slop sink. Self siphonage is created when a rapid flow of water passing through the pipe siphon down the water seal inside the traps with the water seal inside the traps with no vent provision.

Direct/ Self Siphonage


______ is the result of a minus pressure in the pipe create by heavy discharge of water from a fixture installed on a line serving another fixture at a lower flower floor.

Momentum Siphonage or Indirect Siphonage


______ is caused by plus pressure. When large amount of water flow drops downward rapidly forming a slug like, the air inside the pipe will be compressed downward. In the absence of adequate ventilation, the compressed air will be forced to find its way out through a weaker point. The trap seal being the weakest point will give way and blow out of the fixture.

Back Pressure


This process is considered a minor problem and less probable to drain the water inside the trap. This scenario happens only on floor drain which are not regularly used to admit water (eg. basement), but exposed to extreme temperature.



A wind velocity passing over the top of the soil pipe may affect the trap seal. This kind of trap seal loss is one improbable thing to happen by removing the entire water seal inside the p-trap.

Wind Effect


This type of trap seal loss also seldown happen and is rarely experienced by homeowners. ___ is draining water seal caused by foreign objects like thread or string suspended and extended over the outlet arm of the trap.

Capillary action


_____ is that portion of the soil stack above the highest installed fixture branch extending through the roof. It serves as the terminal for the main vent and other vents of the system.

Main soil and waste Vent


This type of ventilation, only serve fixture trap indirectly. Their main function is to maintain the balance atmospheric pressure inside the waste pipe system.

Relief Vent/Yoke Vent


"All roof extensions of soil or waste stack shall run full size at least ____ above the roof and when the roof is used for other purposes than weather protection, such extension shall not be less than _______ above the roof. The terminal of any stack or vent, if within _______ of any door, window, scuttle or air shaft shall extend at least ________ above the same.

30cm; 2.00m; 3.00m; 1.00m


The _____ is that portion of the vent pipe system, serving as terminal for smaller forms of individual and grouped fixture trap ventilation. It is sometimes referred to as ________.

Main Vent; Collecting Vent Line


The main vent shall be in full size at their base to the main soil or waste pipe or below the lowest fixture branch. It shall be extended undiminished in size above the roof, or shall be connected with the main soil vent, at least _____ above the highest fixture branch.



It is that portion of the vent pipe system that serves as a single trap. It is connected closer to the trap directly underneath and back of the fixture, and reconnected into the main vent above the overflow line of the fixture it serves.

Individual Vent/Back Vent


The idea of venting each trap individualy, is very costly but economy could be attained through group venting which is allowed under the following conditions: (3)

Close as possible to the fixture traps

Located underneath or back of the fixture

It must be connected to the main vent above the overflow line of the fixture


No trap seal shall be placed more than ______ horizontal developed length from its vent.



The distance should be measured along the _____ of the waste or soil pipe from the vertical inlet to the trap to the vent opening.

Central Line


A group of 5 lavatories is to be circuit vented. Find the size of the circuit vent pipe.

1 1/2" diameter pipe


How large is the main vent required for various fixtures consisting of 4 water closets; 4 lavatories; 3 showers and 2 kitchen sinks installed on the first floor of a two storey building 6.00 meters high?

Total 36 units

= 2 1/2"


Enumerate permissible number of fixture unit for venting size:

1 1/4"

1 1/2"


2 1/2"












Illustrate individual vent for lavatory, sink, etc. (fig. 11-8; page 192)


Illustrate individual vent for bathtub and shower

fig 11 - 11; page 194


Illustrate individual vent for water closet

fig 11 - 12; page 195


No vent shall be less than ______ diameter except for a _____ diameter waste pipe. The vent pipe shall be of the same diameter size as the _____ and in no case must a branch or main vent have a diameter less than ____ that of the soil or waste pipe served nor shall the lenth of a branch vent of given diameter exceed the maximum length permitted for the main vent serving the same size of the vent stack.

1 1/2"; 1 1/4"; waste pipe; 1/2


"All vents and branch bent pipes shall be free from drops or sags and shall be so graded and connected so as to drip back water to the soil or waste pipe gravity. Where vent pipes connect to a horizontal soil or waste pipe, the vent branch shall be taken off above the center line of the pipe and whenever practicable, the vent pipe must rise vertically or at ______________ it is venting before offsetting horizontally or connecting to the branch main waste or soil vent."

at angle 45 degrees to the vertical up to the point of 15 centimeters above the fixture.


______ is defined as: that portion of a vent pipe system that ventilates two fixture traps that discharges into a sanitary cross with deflectors. It is classified as another form of individual vent, with identical form of back venting, having the same principles in functions.

Unit Venting


Unit venting is common to fixture trap serving what building type? Especially on fixtures with identical position and measurements.

Apartment and Hotels


Illustrate Unit Venting of Wall Hung Fixture


Illustrate unit vent for bath tub installation


Illustrate Unit Vent of Water Closets


_________ is employed where two or more fixture traps are installed on a horizontal soil or waste branch. Generally, the use of this type of vent reduces the cost of plumbing installation. This type of ventilation is commonly used in buildings with more facilities and battery of fixtures.

Circuit Vent or Loop Vent


Enumerate Table 11-5 Size of Circuit Vent for a Battery of Water Closet

2 water closets = 2" diameter

3 - 6 water closets = 3"

7 above = 4"


On circuit vent for a battery of water closets, the Code says that: "No more than _____ water closets or other fixtures shall be allowed on any circuit or loop vent. If there are ____ or ____ water closet which are to be vented, ___ pieces of ____ diameter pipe should be installed.

8 water closets; 14 or 16; 2 pieces 4"


"Circuit or Loop vent is permitted provided that a branch soil or waste pipe to which _______ and not more than _________ water closets, pedestal, urinals, trap standard slop sinks, or shower stalls are connected in a series, may be vented by a circuit or loop vent, which should be taken off in front of the ________.

Two; Eight; Last Fixture Connection


"Where fixtures discharge above such branch (8 water closet; urinal; slop sink, shower stall, pedestal urinal), each branch shall be provided with _________.

relief vent one half the diameter of the soil or waste stack, taken off into front of the fixture connection.


______ is installed to ventilate the soil and waste pipe and the connecting branches rather than the fixture traps.

Relief Vent


Waste branches which are circuit vented shall be provided with _________.

Relief Vent


The ______ of the soil stack on tall building installation is susceptible to back pressure, due to the large volume of water rushing down inside the pipe. Hence, a _____ in this portion of the installation is necessary.

Base; Relief Vent


Relief vent serving a ciruit vented branch, should have at least ____ the diameter of the said soil pipe, but in no vase, be less than _____ diameter.

1/2/; 1 1/2"


Illustrate Yoke Venting


A relief vent used on change of direction, and at the base of the soil pipe, shall have a diameter equal to the _____ and in no case, the relief vent be less than ______.

main vent; 2"


Relief Vent may be installed at interval on the soil pipe having _____.

Changes on direction


On long vertical soil pipe, a relief vent is installed at _____ to _____ floor intervals. In this manner of installation, the relief vent is sometimes referred to as _____ or _______.

3 - 5 floor interval; Yoke or By-pass Ventilation


Yoke vent between the main vent and the soil pipe at ____ floor intervals must have equal pipe diameter, as the main vent.

5 floor interval


Yoke vent between the main vent and the soil pipe at _____ floor intervals must have equal pipe diameter, as the main vent.

5 floor interval


_____ is one type of ventilation use on fixtures in a room away from partitions. This is common to beauty parlors, clinic, barber shop and operating room. (Also to island sink)

Looped Vent


Illustrate Looped Venting and Label Parts.


______ is defined as that portion of the vent pipe system where liquid waste regularly flows.

Wet Vent


Illustrate Wet Ventilation


It is not advisable to drain a _____, or similar fixtures into the wet vent pipe considering the kind of variety of waste matter it discharges.

Kichen Sink


Determine the size of the wet vent necessary to ventilate a group of fixtures consisting of one water closet, two lavatories, and one bath tub.

10 Fixture units = 2"


A system coined for installation of waste and soil pipes only. It doesn't have any ventilation system.

One line Piping


The _____ is sometimes referred to as DWV: Drainage, Waste and Vent. The installation has proven itself as efficient plumbing system.

Two Line Drainage System


The _____ is a recent development in drainage installation suitable for tall buildings. This new concept in plumbing has almost completely eliminates the vent stack and other forms of ventilation.


The sovent system was introduced by ____ of Switzerland. It was first presented in 1962, when testen on a 10 storey drainage tower which resulted in a satisfactory performance.

Fritz Sommer


The sovent system was introduced in _____, more than 100 tall buildings in Europe and Africa adopted its use. It was used also in Habitat Apartment in Canada, 1967 world's fair.



In ____ (date), the Sovent System was first introduced in the United States constrction of _________ in Richmond, California. Thereafter, in the same year, the Sovent System was granted Plumbing Code Acceptance in Richmond, California.

1968; Uniment Apartment


The _____ system eliminates the use of ventilation line but still maintained the balance atmospheric pressure required inside the pipe.


A large amount of waste and sewage discharges from the upper floor fixtures could form a ____ pressing or pushing the air downward the pipe creating forces.

Slug / Bullet


The downward force classified as ______, will induce back flow of waster seal inside the P-trap of lower fixtures. Likewise, the suction force called ______ will siphon and pull down the water seal of the fixtures and create a trap seal loss.

Plus Pressure; Minus Pressure


In Sovent System, PRL means:

Pressure Relief Line


The PRL shall be connected to the horizontal drain a minimum of _____ pipe diameter based on the ______ size.

10x; Stack Size


Sovent System: The ______ fitting functions in combination with the aerator fittings above to make a single stack self venting. The deaerator is designed to overcome tendency of the falling waste to stock up excessive back pressure at the bottom of the stack when the flow is decelerated by the bend into the horizontal drain.



A sovent system consists of" (3)

Vertical Stack Open to the atmosphere

Horizontal Branches to each Fixture

Sovent Aerator and Deaerator


The sovent system prevents excursions from exceeding _____ of water column, which is standard for sanitary drainage systems.

+/- one inch of water columns


Illustrate Each Sovent system Components


Minimum and Maximum Stack Pipe diameter for Aerator

3" - 8"


Minimum and Maximum Nominal Diameter sizes for Deaerator Fitting

4 - 8"


Illustrate Aerator Fitting Section




Illustrate Deaerator Fitting Section




The _______ of sovent system functions as to prevent seal failure along the vertical stack. The cross sectional area always maintains a core of air to balance pressure changes and protect the trap seals. This prevent sewer gas and odors from entering the living areas.

Core Air


Illustrate the parts of a tail piece


When piping design left incontrolled, the flow velocity will increase to a point known as ______ and may form a complete cross-sectional blockage of the tube. This results in positive and negative pressures that may cause trap seal failures through induced siphonage and blowback.

Terminal Velocity


The original material used for sovent piping is ______, attributed to its proven record of quick and trouble free installation



50,000 dwelling unit; 212 storey hign in Pheonix which utilized copper sovent system.

Hyatt Hotel


What is new in sovent plumbing system?

Elimination of Ventilation


______ is a combination of two chemical elements called Hydrogen and Oxygen. It appears in its natural state as liquid, solid (ice) or gas (water vapor or steam).



Water in its liquid form is _____ times heavier than air, but in its gaseous state, it is ______ times lighter than air.

839; 133


Water in its liquid form weights about ______ kg per U.S. gallon, or ____ kg per cubic meter.

3.77kg per US Gallon; 1000kg per cubic meter


The three source of water are:

Rain Water

Natural Surface Water from streams and rivers

Underground Water