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Flashcards in PM - 1 Deck (56):
1

time frame for PCI

within 120 mins

2

which type of bundle branch block is never normal

LBBB

3

cases of LBBB

ischaemia or structural changes

4

first line treatment for heart failure

ACE and a B`blocker

5

normal ejecto fraction (EF)

> 55%

6

cardio selective B-blockers

atenolol, bisopralol, mataprolo

7

first line treatment in hypertension in > 55/afro caribean

calcium channel (ends in -pine)

8

first line treatment in hypertension in < 55

ACE (ends in -april)

9

2nd line treatment of hypertension any age

ACE + Calcium

10

3ed line treatment in hypertension

ACE + Calcium + thiazide like diuretic

11

examples of thiazide-like-diuretics

chlorthalidone or indapamide

12

target BP in < 80 in clinical setting

140/90

13

target BP in > 80 in clinical setting

150/90

14

target BP in < 80 in ABPM/HBPM

138/85

15

target BP in > 80 in ABPM/HBPM

145/85

16

inverted t wave

MI > 24 hrs old

17

scoring system for stroke risk

CHAD2DS2VAS score

18

CHAD2DS2VAS score breakdown

C Congestive heart failure 1
H Hypertension (or treated hypertension) 1
A2 Age >= 75 years 2
Age 65-74 years 1
D Diabetes 1
S2 Prior Stroke or TIA 2
V Vascular disease (including ischaemic heart disease and peripheral arterial disease) 1
S Sex (female) 1

19

Treatment if CHAD2DS2VAS score is 1

woman: no treatment
Man: Consider anticoag

20

Treatment if CHAD2DS2VAS score is 2 or more

anticoagulation

21

ECG: V1-V4

Anterolseptal - LAD

22

ECG: II, III, aVF

Inferior - Right coronary

23

ECG: V4-V6, I , aVL

Left anterior descending/left circumflex

24

ECG: I, aVL +/- V5/6

Left circumflex

25

ECG: Tall R waves V1-2

posterior: usually Left circumflex, also right coronary

26

who cant you gibe adenosine to and what do you give instead

asthmatics, give verapamil

27

narrow complex tacky

SVT

28

SVT treatment

valsalva > adenosine (6mg > 12mg > 12mg) > cardioversion

**If asthmatic no adenosine, give verapamil

29

How long can't you drive post MI

4 weeks

30

palpitations + absent P wave

atrial fibrillation

31

when do you give Atrial fibrillation treatment

If haemodynamically unstable

shock: hypotension (systolic blood pressure < 90 mmHg), pallor, sweating,

cold, clammy extremities, confusion or impaired consciousness, syncope, myocardial ischaemia, heart failure

32

saddle shaped ST elevation

pericarditis

33

aldosterone antagonist example

spironolactone

34

first-line treatment for cardiac failure

both an ACE-inhibitor and a beta-blocker

35

second-line treatment for cardiac failure

either an aldosterone antagonist, angiotensin II receptor blocker or a hydralazine in combination with a nitrate

36

common ECG finding in pulmonary embolism?

sinus tacky

37

Tachypnea respiratory rate?

> 16

38

Fever =

> 37.8

39

Suspected PE, what scoring system

Wells core

40

investigation for suspected PE

computed tomographic pulmonary angiography (CTPA)

41

alcoholic with a broad complex tachy

polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (Torsade de Pointes)

** caused by low potassium and magnesium**

42

slow rising pulse

aortic stenosis

43

aortic stenosis: younger patients < 65 years:

bicuspid valve

44

aortic stenosis: older patients > 65 years:

valve calcification

45

torsardes de points treatment

IV magnesium sulphate

46

Sudden death, unusual collapse in young person

Hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy

47

what is Hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOC)

hypertrophic (enlarged) without any obvious cause, creating functional impairment of the heart. It is the leading cause of sudden cardiac death in young athletes.

48

Investigation for heart failure: Previous myocardial infarction

arrange echocardiogram within 2 weeks

49

Investigation for heart failure: NO previous myocardial infarction

measure serum natriuretic peptides (BNP)
if levels are 'high' arrange echocardiogram within 2 weeks
if levels are 'raised' arrange echocardiogram within 6 weeks

50

when do you never give verapamil

if already on a B - blocker (causes a bradycardia)

51

what drug is ivabradine

long acting nitrate

52

what drug is nicorandil

long acting nitrate

53

what type of drug is verapamil

rate limiting calcium channel blocker

54

first line for ST elevated MI

Aspirin + ticagrelor + IV heparin + immediate percutaneous coronary intervention

55

The absence of a carotid pulse in the presence of sinus tachycardia indicates

non shockable rhythm

56

course crackles

pulmonary oedema