PM - 1 Flashcards Preview

Surgery > PM - 1 > Flashcards

Flashcards in PM - 1 Deck (43):
1

epigastric pain relieved by eating

duodenal ulcer

2

epigastric pain worsened by eating

gastric ulcer

3

Periumbilical discolouration - name and diagnosis

cullens sign - pancreatitis

4

flank discolouration - name and diagnosis

Grey-Turners sign - pancreatitis

5

Pain in the RUQ radiating to the back and interscapular region, following a fatty meal

biliary colic

6

who get biliary colic

female, forties, fat and fair

7

arrest of inspiration on palpation of the RUQ is called what and suggests what diagnosis

Murphy's sign - Acute cholecystitis

8

Acute cholecystitis pain characteristics

constant

9

Colicky pain typically in the LLQ

Diverticulitis

10

Severe central abdominal pain radiating to the back

AAA

11

what in history may suggest bowel obstruction

History of malignancy/previous operations

12

where is McBurneys point

between ASIS and umbilicus, 1/3 in.

13

thumb printing on abdo X-ray

mesenteric ischaemia

14

abdominal pain + metabolic acidosis

mesenteric ischaemia

15

Charcot's triad is what and indicates what

right upper quadrant pain, fever and jaundice = ascending cholangitis

16

right upper quadrant pain, fever and jaundice

ascending cholangitis

17

what is ascending cholangitis

bacterial infection of biliary tree, commonly have stones

18

ascending cholangitis treatment

IV ABX + ERCP

19

loin to groin pain

ureteric calculus (renal stones)

20

initial investigation for suspected renal stones

USS then non-contrast CT

21

stone size cut off for active treatment

> 5cm

22

treatment for renal stones > 5cm

Shock wave lithotripsy

23

when do you use ureteroscopy (apposed to shock wave lithotripsy) for renal stones

pregnant woman or complex stones
**stent usually left in for 4 weeks after**

24

2 types or renal stones

oxalate and uric acid

25

what drug can prevent uric acid stones

allopurinol

26

what is tamsulosin used for

BPH

27

what type of drug is tamsulosin and what are its side effects

alpha-1 antagonist (alpha blocker - reduces smooth muscle tone) causes sissiness, postural hypotension

28

what is finasteride used for and what type of drug is it

BPH - 5 alpha reductase inhibitor

29

how does finasteride work

blocks testosterone conversion into dihydrotestosteeone which induce BPH

30

Finasteride side effects

reduced testosterone = erectile dysfunction, reduced libido, ejaculation problems, gynaecomastia

31

COCP and surgery rule

stop 4 weeks prior - switch to progesterone only pill

32

what is a varicocele

enlarged testicular veins "bag of worms"

33

hypoglossal damage: tongue will deviate in what direction

towards the side affected (tonge = T = towards)

34

colon cancer marker

Carcinoembryonic antigen

35

obstructive jaundice + history of UC and primary sclerosing cholangitis

Cholangiocarcinoma

36

which heparin requires monitoring and how

unfractionated heparin - measure APTT

37

liver mass + rise in AFP

hepatocellular carcinoma

38

most common thyroid cancer

papillary

39

Hypertension in a young patient without any obvious cause think

Phaeochromocytoma

40

Pheochromocytoma investigations

plasma metanephrines loves (will be raised)

41

What is pheochromocytoma

Neuroendocrine tumour of the chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla. Hypertension and hyperglycaemia are often found.

42

what is metanephrine

metabolite of epinephrine (adrenaline). Pheochromocytoma = high epinephrine = high levels of metanephrine

43

which renal stone can't you see on X-ray

urate