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Flashcards in PM - 1 Deck (83):
1

eye pain worse on movement, afferent pupil defect

optic neuritis

2

if retinal cannot be visualised what does the suggest

vitreous haemorrhage

3

Homonymous quadrantanopia acronimy

PITS (Parietal-Inferior, Temporal-Superior)

4

dry macular degeneration will have what appearance

druse - yellow round spots

5

wet macular degeneration will ahem what appearance

exudative, neovascularisation

6

what is ranibizumab

anti-VEGF

7

what is optic coherence tomography

takes cross sectional picture of retina

8

what is fluorescein angiography

injection of fluorescein into blood vessels so vessel so a picture of eye can be taken

9

dry macular degeneration does not have a treatment, how do you treat wet

photocoagulation
photodynamic therapy
anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) treatments: intravitreal ranibizumab

10

in-turning of eye lid

entropion

11

out-turning of eyelid

ectropion

12

risks with entropion an treatment

corneal ulcer formation, treat with surgery

13

who is more artist of acute angle closure glaucoma

hypermetropia

14

what happens to pupil in acute angle glaucoma

semi dilated non reactive

15

how do hard exudates and cotton wool (soft exudates) spots vary in appearance

hard exudates have a sharp margin

16

what will you see in central VEIN occlusion

retinal haemorrhages

17

what will you see in central ARTERY occlusion

cherry sot on pale retina

18

latanoprost does what and is used when

prostaglandin analogue that increases uveoscleral outflow in open angle glaucoma

19

bet blocker that is used in glaucoma

timolol

20

how do beta blockers (timolol) help with glaucoma

reduce aqueous production

21

central field vision loss suggests

macular degeneration

22

peripheral feels vision loss suggest

open-angle glaucoma

23

diagnosis: wide spread dot blot and flame haemorrhages

retinal vein occlusion

24

normal intra-occular pressure

< 21

25

name for an inwards squint

esopropia (convergent strabismus)

26

name for an outwards squint

exotropia (divergent strabismus)

27

6th nerve does what eye movement, what muscle, and what will a palsy look like

lateral rectus, looks laterally, eye looking medially at nose.

28

4th nerve does what eye movement, what muscle, and what will a palsy look like

superior oblique, looks down and inwards, up and inwards, can't look down and inwards

29

3rd nerve does what eye movement, what muscle, and what will a palsy look like

all eye movements other that 4th and 6th, get down and out

30

the lateral rectus is innervated by what nerve

abducens nerve (CNIV)

31

the trochlear nerve supplies what eye muscle

superior oblique (SO4)

32

what nerve innervates elevator palpebral superiors

oculomotor nerve supply

33

what will be seen on background diabetic retinopathy

haemorrhages, hard exudates, and micro aneurisms

34

what will be seen on pre-proliferative diabetic retinopathy

cotton wool spots, venous beading/looping, deep/dark cluster haemorrhages

35

what will be seen on proliferative diabetic retinopathy

evidence of retinal neovascularisation

36

recent sinus infection, now sore eye, fever, reduced movement

orbital cellulitis

37

cranial nerve that detects light

optic nerve

38

cranial nerve that is responsible for pupil constriction

oculomotor

39

pupillary reflex nerves

afferent (light) = optic CNII
efferent (constriction)= oculomotor CNIII

40

what will pupil look like in 3rd nerve palsy

dilated (cos 3rd is responsible for constriction, sympathetic ciliary nerves cause dilation) - ptosis

41

what is miosis and what causes it

small pupil = due to interruption to sympathetic nerves responsible for dilation. think lung cancer compresing sympathetic chain

42

name for tumour that can cause miosis

pancoast tumour

43

how do you differentiate scleritis from episcleritis

episcleritis, the vessels will move and blanch, may also be associated with a nodule

44

diagnosis: sore eye, blurred vision, photophobia, red at cornea/sclera junction

anterior uveitis

45

uveitis investigations

slit lamp to look for leucocytes in anterior chamber

46

diagnosis: irregular pupillary border

uveitis

47

what is RAPD

wing light and when shining in affected light pupils will dilate instead of constrict, indicated afferent defect such as optic neuritis or neuropathy

48

acute closed angle glaucoma treatment

beta-blocker (timolol)
pupil constrictor - pilocarpine
IV acetazolamide - diuretic
peripheral iridectomy (lazer or surgery) doen once IOP is controlled

49

follicles on conjunctiva

adenovirus conjunctivitis

50

purulent eye discharge

bacterial conjunctivitis

51

serous eye discharge

viral conjunctivitis

52

treatment for bacterial conjunctivitis

chloramphenicol

53

corneal inflammation is called what

keratitis

54

what causes a dendrites corneal ulcer

herpes simplex

55

dendritic ulcer treatment

acyclovir drops

56

red desaturation, afferent defect

optic neuritis

57

who gets optic neuritis

MS

58

optic neuritis treatment

high dose steroids

59

cherry red spot

retinal artery occlusion

60

what has a faster onset, arterial or vein occlusion

arterial - so ask about time of onset

61

retinal vein occlusion treatment

anti-VEGF (avoid neovascularisation)

62

retinal artery occlusion treatment

no specific treatment - aim to reduce IOC massage, drugs, surgical removal of aqueous

63

cause of absent red reflex in an adult

vitreous haemorrhage

64

treatment for a bad vitreous haemorrhage

vitrectomy

65

optic disc edge is irregular

drusen in dry macular degeneration

66

treatment for wet macular (exudative) degeneration

anti-VEGF

67

what will wet macular degeneration look like

new blood vessels around macular

68

when will you see druse (white spots over macular)

dry macular degeneration

69

treatment for dry (non-exudative) macular degeneration

anti-oxidant supplements

70

hard exudates and micro aneurisms

pre-proliferative diabetic retinopathy

71

vascular proliferation

proliferative diabetic retinopathy

72

treatment for diabetic retinopathy

- good glycaemic control
- anti-VEGF
- later photocoagulation

73

who gets vitreous haemorrhage

diabetics

74

normal cup ratio

< 50% of disk

75

night blindness

retinitis pigmentosa

76

what is hypromellose

artificial tears given in sjogrens

77

further investigations in someone presenting with uveitis

bowel issues, chest X-ray for sarcoid, HLA-B27

78

treatment for uveitis

topical steroids

79

haemorrhages, hard exudates, micro aneurisms

background diabetic retinopathy

80

cotton wool spots, venous/beading, cluster haemorrhages,

pre-proliferative diabetic retinopathy

81

neovascularisation and fibrosis anterior to retinal disc

proliferative diabetic retinopathy

82

hypopyon

pus cells accumulated in anterior chamber - keratitis

83

unilateral red eye, photophobia, small pupil

iritis