The nervous system is divided functionally into the:
somatic and automatic (visceral) OR efferent and afferent
Name the structural and functional unit of the nervous sytem
Name the structure which carries impulses away from the nerve cell body
Neurons communicate with each other where?
At the synapse
The nervous communication occurs by means of chemical reagents called:
The fxn of Neuroglia
Support the neurons
What are some neuroglia of the PNS
Schwann cells are aka
The cranial ventricles are lined by:
A collection of nerves in the CNS is known as:
The white mater in the CNS includes:
Name the meninges
Dura mater, arachnoid mater and pia mater
Layer which provides an effective barier of the nerve fibers
What does the endoneurium surround?
The axon and neurolemma cell
Name two types of ganglia in function
Motor and sensory
In the PNS what are the sensory nerve fibers aka
How many cranial nerves arise from the brain?
11 (not spinal accessory)
Where does the spinal accessory nerve arise from?
The upper cervical spinal cord
What do spinal nerves arise from the spinal cord as?
Anterior and posterior rootlets
What is the definition of a dermatome
The unilateral area of skin innervated by the fibers of a single spinal nerve
What describes proprioceptive sensations
Concerns the spacial orientation of the body and limbs
Visceral motor fibers transmit impulses to ______, ________. and ________
Smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and glandular tissue
What innervates the masseter
Branchial motor fibers
Name three functionally different modalities of the nerve fibers which innervate the skeletal muscles
Somatic motor, branchial motor, general sensory
Name four functional modalities of the nerve fibers which are carried by the facial nerve
Branchial motor, visceral motor, general sensory, special sensory
How many neurons make up a consecutive somatic motor pathway
What is embedded in the anterior gray horn and what does this make up?
Lower motor neurons, forms the nuclei of origin
Where are lower motor neuron bodies located and what do they make up
Located in brain stem and upper cervicals of the spinal cord and make up the nuclei of origin
What is atropy associated with
Lower motor neuron lesion
The second sensory neurons decussate and project to where?
Tertiary sensory neurons are where
Ventral thalamic nucleus
The posterior limb is a part of what and where does it carry tertiary sensory neuronal axons?
Part of the internal capsule, and carries axons to the postcentral gyrus
Where do branchial efferent cranial neurons arise from
Nucleus of origin
What neuronal type are the primary sensory neurons?
Name the patent openings for the four visceral efferent cranial nerves
III- superior orbital fissure, VII- internal acoustic meatus, IX- jugular foramen, X- Jugular formen
Describe the superficial or apparent origin of the cranial nerve VI
Inferior pontine sulcus
What is the main secondary olfactoy neuron
Name 2 sensory olfactory neurons
Mitral cell, tufted cell
where are primary olfactory neurons located?
On the superior nasal concha
Where do olfactory cilia attach?
To the olfactory vesicle of the primary olfactory neuron
What are fila olfactoria
gathered bunches of Axons of the primary olfactory neuron
What neurons continually replace thru out life?
Olfactory receptor neurons
What forms fila olfactoria
The synapses between the primary and secondaey olfactory neurons (in olfactory bulb)
Name the laminar structure of the olfactory bulb from the surface inward
Olfactory nerve layer, Golmerular layer, external plexiform layer, mitral layer, internal plexiform layer, granule cell layer, olfactory nerve tracts
What happens in the glomerular layer of the olfactory bulb?
Incoming olfactory axons synapse with dendrites of the secondary olfactory neuron
What does the granule cell layer of the olfactory bulb become?
Becomes the anterior olfactory nucleus in the olfactory tract
What does the olfactory trigone split into?
The medial and lateral olfactory striae
What are the 2 main intrinsic neurons in the olfactory bulb?
periglomerular and granule cells
What neuron has no axon in the olfactory bulb?
The medial stria of the olfactory nerve ends where?
the subcallosal area
What does the subcallosal area contain (areas)?
Parolfactory and paraterminal area
What does the subcallosal area connect with via the cingular gyrus?
What 3 things are connected by the lateral stria of the olfactory nerves?
Gyrus semilunaris, amigdaloid body, and entorhinal area
Describe olfactory nerve fibers
Extremely minute and unmyelinated
What is anosmia/hyposmia?
Result of damage to any part of the olfactory system (lack/absence of smell)
What are all neuronal elements of the eye derived from
Optic vessicle of prosencephalon
What are the optic nerves composed of?
Axons of multipolar neurons in the ganglionic layer
What is the layer of optic nerve in the retina formed by?
Axons of multiple multipolar neurons
Name the layers of the eyeball
Fibrous tunic, vascular tunic, internal sensory
What is the uvea formed by?
Iris, ciliary body, and choroidea
What is the choroidea and where is it located?
The vascular tunic located in the posterior portion of the eyeball
Name the 10 layers of the retina from inner surface to outward
Internal limiting membrane, layer of nerve fibers, ganglionic layer of the retina, inner plexiform layer, inner nuclear layer,outer plexiform layer, external nuclear layer, external limiting membrane, rods and cones/Jacob's membrane, pigmented epithelium
Where do glial cells of muller (vertical) extend and mark?
Between the internal and external limiting membranes
What retinal layer are horizontal cells located?
Outer plexiform layer
What is the outer layer of the retina
What are lamina cribrosa and what penetrates them
Very thin choroid and sclera layers, penetrated by the optic nerve fibers at the optic disc
Where does the optic nerve enter the cranial cavity?
Thru the optic canal of the lesser wing of the sphenoid bone
What happens at the optic chiasm?
The optic nerve fibers from the medial half of both eyes decussate
What does the left optic tract carry optic nerve fibers from
The left half of both eyes
Axons of the secondary optic neurons end where?
at the lateral geniculate body
What is the principle nucleus of termination of the optic nerves
lateral geniculate nucleus
What is initiated at the edinger-westphal nucleus involving the optic nerve
Nucleus of origin of the reflex movement of the sphincter pupillae muscle
The right and left cortical centers of vision are interconnected by what and this forms what?
Corpus callosum, forms forceps posticus
What is hemianopia
Pathology caused by optic tract lesion
What occurs at edinger-westphal nuclues in regards to the oculomotor nerve
Visceral nucleus of origin of the oculomotor nerve for parasympathetic nervous system
Name 5 things the oculomotor nerve passes thru
Tegmentum,red nucleus, Medial part of substantia nigra, Lateral wall of cavernous sinus, Interpeduncular sulcus/fossa (emerges here)
What does oculomotor nerve communicate with at the lateral wall of the cavernous sinus?
What is the function of the oculomotor/opthalmic nerve communication?
Proprioceptive information from the five extrinsic eye muscles
Name 2 muscles which are innervated by superior ramus of the oculomotor nerve
Levator palpebrae superioris and superior rectus
What 3 things does the inferior ramus of the oculomotor nerve innervate
Medial rectus, inferior rectus, and inferior obliqus
What occurs at the ciliary ganglion
Most presynaptic neurons of the edinger-westphal nucleus synape with postganglionic fibers
What does the opthalmic nerve receive?
Proprioceptive fibers from the 5 extrinsic eye muscles
What does the internal carotid plexus control
Vasomotor of the extrinsic muscles
What is Brodman area 8?
The cortical center of the oculomotor nerve
What is the superior central gyrus the cortical area for?
Which visceral muscle is not controlled by sympathetic nervous system?
What does the superior cervical ganglion give off and what does it carry
The internal carotid nerve which carries major sympathetic nerves for the head
Name the nuclei of prigin of the preganglionic neurons for the parasympathetic nervous system
Edinger-westphal, superior and inferior salvatory, dorsal vagus
What do the cervical and middle cervical ganglia hold?
postganglionic neurons in the sympathetic nervous system
Where is the sympathetic nervous system distributed
Vascular and somatic nervous systems
Where are preganglionic neurons of the sympathetic nervous system located
Lateral horn of cord at levels T1-L2 or L3
The preganglionic nerve fibers of the lateral intermediate substance cells pass thru the ______ as a _____ to a sympathetic ganglion
Ventral horn, white ramus communicantes
Most cranial nerves communicate with postganglionic fibers from what?
The superior cervical ganglion
The major sympathetic nerve into the head:
Internal carotid plexus
Where does the trochlear nerve decussate
In the tectum
Where does the trochlear nerve enter the dura mater
Anterior margin of the cerebellar tentorium
What nerves communicate w the trochlear nerve and for what purposes?
Opthalmic branch of trigeminal,- for proprioceptive fiber from superior obliqus
A lesion affecting the trochlear nerve leaves you unable to do what
Look down and lateral
Name the masticating muscles
Masseter, medial and lateral pterygoid, and temporalis
What are the masticating muscles innervated by
Branchial motor fibers of trigeminal
Name the 2 deglutinating muscles
Anterior belly digastric and mylohyoid
What are the deglutinating muscles innervated by?
The sensory root of the trigeminal nerve is smaller or bigger than the motor root?
Where is the trigeminal ganglion located
IN the dura mater fold on the trigeminal impression of the petrosal portion of the temporal bone
Name the 3 nuclei of termination for the trigeminal nerve
Mesencephalic, pontine, and spinal nuclei
What 3 nuclei of termination do the cental processes of the trigeminal ganglion synapse within
Mesencephalic, pontine and spinal nuclei
Name the cranial nerves which send sensory info to the spinal nucleus of the trigeminal nerve
V- trigeminal, VII- facial, IX- glossopharyngeal, X- Vagus
Spinal nucleus of trigeminal in the MO is continuous in the spinal cord as what?
The substantia gelatinosa of Roland
All of the following cranial nerves send their primary sensory neuron from their sensory ganglia to the spinal nucleus of the trigeminal, except:
trochlear nerve, facial nerve. glossopharyngeal nerve, vagus nerve
The opthalmic nerve communicated with what nerves and for what reason
Oculomotor, trochlear, and abducens for proprioceptive sensory nerves
What nerve carries the recurrent meningeal nerve of the opthalmic nerve and where does it carry it to
Trochlear nerve carries it to the tentorium cerebelli
Opthalmic supplies sensory to the tentorium cerebelli thru via which nerve?
The opthalmic nerve exits the cranial cavity thru what
Superior orbital fissure
Where does the opthalmic nerve divide and what does it divide into
Just before entering the orbital cavity thru the superior orbital fissure, divides into lacrimal, frontal, and nasociliary nerves
Where does the lacrimal nerve enter the orbit
Thru lateral part of superior orbital fissure
What does the lacrimal nerve receive
A branch from the zygomaticotemporal nerve of the maxillary nerve
Name all nerves that pass thru SOF
oculomotor, trochlear, trigeminal, abducens, opthalmic (3-6)
What does the frontal nerve lie above
The levator palpebrae superioris
What does the supraorbital nerve innevate?
Skin of forehead, scalp, and frontal sinus mucosa
Name all sensory nerves which involve transmitting itching sense from apex of nose to trigeminal ganglion (in order)
External nasal nerve to anterior ethmoidal nerve to nasociliary nerve to opthalmic nerve to trigeminal nerve- to mesencephalic or spinal or trigeminal nucleus of termination
Which 4 nerves pass thru the common tendinous ring of the extrinsic eye muscles
Nasociliary, oculomotor, abducens, opthalmic
What other thing also pass thru the common tendinous ring of the extrinsic eye muscles
Where does the anterior ethmoidal nerve enter the nasal cavity
Thru a slit of the lateral side of the crista galli
Where does the supratrochlear nerve pass
Above the trochlea of the superior oblique muscle
What does the supraorbital nerve innervate
Skin of forehead
Name the nerve which runs anteriorly in the eyeball between the sclera and the choroid to the ciliary body, iris and cornea:
nasociliary nerve, long ciliary nerve, optic nerve, anterior ethmoidal nerve
The nasociliary nerve communicates with the ciliay gangion mainly for the fibers of:
Somatic sensory nerve
The ciliary ganglion gives off the ____ to the _____
Long ciliary nerves to the ciliary body, iris, and cornea
Where does the long ciliary nerve travel
Runs forwards of the eyeball btween the sclera and the choroid to the cilliary body, iris, and cornea
Name 3 fiber types included in the short ciliary nerve
Sympathetic, parasympathetic, somatic sensory
What are sphenoid sinuses innervated by
Posterior ethmoidal nerve
Where does the maxillary nerve pass?
Horizontally forward along the lower part of the lateral wall of the cavernous dural venous sinus
All of the following nerves enter the orbit thru the inferior orbital fissure except:
Zygomatic nerve of maxillary nerve, Maxillary nerve, mandibular nerve, orbital nerve of the pterygopalatine ganglion
Where does the posterior superior alveolar nerve branch from and where does it go
Branches off the maxillary nerve in the pterygopalatine fossa
What nerve accompanies the frontal branch of the middle meningeal artery?
Middle meningeal artery
The ganglionic nerves of the maxillary nerve connect to:
What does the zygomaticofacial nerve do
Innervates the skin on the prominence of the cheek
Where does the middle superior alveolar nerve arise from
Name the largest peripheral ganglion of the parasympathetic nervous system
The pterygopalatine ganglion receives three roots including all of the following except:
sympathetic visceral root of superior cervical ganglion, Parasympathetic visceral root of the facial nerve, somatic sensory root of mandibular ganglionic nerve, general sensory root of the maxillary ganglionic nerve
Where does the nasopalatine nerve lie?
In the vomer groove of the nasal septum
What does the pharyngeal nerve of the nasal nerve innervate?
Mucous membrane on the torus tubaris
What does the lesser palatine nerve of pterygopalatine innervate?
innervates the palatine tonsil
Name the pathway of the taste impulse from the palate to the tractus solitarius in sequence
Palate to palatine nerve to pterygopalatine ganglion to nerve of ptyrygoid canal and greater pertrosal nerve to facial ganglio to nervus intermedius to tractus solitarius
The sensory root of the mandibular nerve emerges from
foramen ovale of sphenoid.
Name the Branchial motor nuclei and nerves
(V3,7,9,10,11)Trigeminal motor, facial, nucleus ambiguous (9,10), spinal accessory nuclei
Name the parasympathetic (visceral motor) nuclei and nerves
(3,7,9,10) accessory Oculomotor of edinger-westphal, superior and inferior salvatory, dorsal vagus nuclei
Name the somatic (motor) efferent nuclei and neres
3,4,6,12 oculomotor motor, trochlear motor, abducens motor, hypoglossal motor
where does the mandibular nerve emerge
foramen ovale of sphenoid
what is the mandibular nerve located between?
tensor veli palatini (medially) and lateral pterygoid (laterally)
where does mandibular nerve enter skull thru
foramen spinosum of sphenoid
what supplies the tensor veli palatini?
nerve to medial pterygoid (of mandibular)
what innervates the temporomandibular joint?
masseteric nerve (of mandibular)
what is a branch from posterior trunk of mandibular nerve
what does the auriculotemporal nerve encircle
middle meningeal artery (of maxillary artery)
what does the auriculotemporal nerve (of mandibular) pass btween
sphenoandibular ligament and neck of mandible
what do parotid branches of auriculotemporal (of mandibular) supply?
convey secretomotor fibers to parotid gland
the chorda tympani of the facial nerve joins with which other nerve
lingual nerve (of mandibular)
the chorda tympani, via the lingual nerve carry what info and to what?
carry parasympathetic efferent to the submandibular ganglion
what nerve is connected to the submandibular ganglion?
lingual (of mandibular)
postganglionic fibers from submandiblar ganglion are carried to which 3 glands
sublingual, anterior lingual, and submandibular glands
what does the inferior alveolar nerve pass between
btween sphenomandibular lig and ramus of mandible
what accompanies the inferior alveolar nerve
inferior alveolar artery of _____
where is the mylohyoid nerve (branch of inf alveolar n) located (sulcus?)
what does the mylohyoid nerve pass under
what js trigeminal neuroglia aka
pain from ulcer or tongue cancer radiates to where (distribution of which nerve??)
ear and temporal fossa, distribution of auriculotemporal n