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Flashcards in Pns exam 1 Deck (167):
1

The nervous system is divided functionally into the:

somatic and automatic (visceral) OR efferent and afferent

2

Name the structural and functional unit of the nervous sytem

Neuron

3

Name the structure which carries impulses away from the nerve cell body

Axon

4

Neurons communicate with each other where?

At the synapse

5

The nervous communication occurs by means of chemical reagents called:

Neurotransmitters

6

The fxn of Neuroglia

Support the neurons

7

What are some neuroglia of the PNS

Neurolemma cells

8

Schwann cells are aka

Neurolemma cell

9

The cranial ventricles are lined by:

Ependymal cells

10

A collection of nerves in the CNS is known as:

Nucleus

11

The white mater in the CNS includes:

Cranial tract

12

Name the meninges

Dura mater, arachnoid mater and pia mater

13

Layer which provides an effective barier of the nerve fibers

Perineurium

14

What does the endoneurium surround?

The axon and neurolemma cell

15

Name two types of ganglia in function

Motor and sensory

16

In the PNS what are the sensory nerve fibers aka

Afferent fibers

17

How many cranial nerves arise from the brain?

11 (not spinal accessory)

18

Where does the spinal accessory nerve arise from?

The upper cervical spinal cord

19

What do spinal nerves arise from the spinal cord as?

Anterior and posterior rootlets

20

What is the definition of a dermatome

The unilateral area of skin innervated by the fibers of a single spinal nerve

21

What describes proprioceptive sensations

Concerns the spacial orientation of the body and limbs

22

Visceral motor fibers transmit impulses to ______, ________. and ________

Smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and glandular tissue

23

What innervates the masseter

Branchial motor fibers

24

Name three functionally different modalities of the nerve fibers which innervate the skeletal muscles

Somatic motor, branchial motor, general sensory

25

Name four functional modalities of the nerve fibers which are carried by the facial nerve

Branchial motor, visceral motor, general sensory, special sensory

26

How many neurons make up a consecutive somatic motor pathway

2

27

What is embedded in the anterior gray horn and what does this make up?

Lower motor neurons, forms the nuclei of origin

28

Where are lower motor neuron bodies located and what do they make up

Located in brain stem and upper cervicals of the spinal cord and make up the nuclei of origin

29

What is atropy associated with

Lower motor neuron lesion

30

The second sensory neurons decussate and project to where?

The thalamus

31

Tertiary sensory neurons are where

Ventral thalamic nucleus

32

The posterior limb is a part of what and where does it carry tertiary sensory neuronal axons?

Part of the internal capsule, and carries axons to the postcentral gyrus

33

Where do branchial efferent cranial neurons arise from

Nucleus of origin

34

What neuronal type are the primary sensory neurons?

(pesudo)unipolar

35

Name the patent openings for the four visceral efferent cranial nerves

III- superior orbital fissure, VII- internal acoustic meatus, IX- jugular foramen, X- Jugular formen

36

Describe the superficial or apparent origin of the cranial nerve VI

Inferior pontine sulcus

37

What is the main secondary olfactoy neuron

Mitral cell

38

Name 2 sensory olfactory neurons

Mitral cell, tufted cell

39

where are primary olfactory neurons located?

On the superior nasal concha

40

Where do olfactory cilia attach?

To the olfactory vesicle of the primary olfactory neuron

41

What are fila olfactoria

gathered bunches of Axons of the primary olfactory neuron

42

What neurons continually replace thru out life?

Olfactory receptor neurons

43

What forms fila olfactoria

The synapses between the primary and secondaey olfactory neurons (in olfactory bulb)

44

Name the laminar structure of the olfactory bulb from the surface inward

Olfactory nerve layer, Golmerular layer, external plexiform layer, mitral layer, internal plexiform layer, granule cell layer, olfactory nerve tracts

45

What happens in the glomerular layer of the olfactory bulb?

Incoming olfactory axons synapse with dendrites of the secondary olfactory neuron

46

What does the granule cell layer of the olfactory bulb become?

Becomes the anterior olfactory nucleus in the olfactory tract

47

What does the olfactory trigone split into?

The medial and lateral olfactory striae

48

What are the 2 main intrinsic neurons in the olfactory bulb?

periglomerular and granule cells

49

What neuron has no axon in the olfactory bulb?

Granule cells

50

The medial stria of the olfactory nerve ends where?

the subcallosal area

51

What does the subcallosal area contain (areas)?

Parolfactory and paraterminal area

52

What does the subcallosal area connect with via the cingular gyrus?

Parahippocampal gyrus

53

What 3 things are connected by the lateral stria of the olfactory nerves?

Gyrus semilunaris, amigdaloid body, and entorhinal area

54

Describe olfactory nerve fibers

Extremely minute and unmyelinated

55

What is anosmia/hyposmia?

Result of damage to any part of the olfactory system (lack/absence of smell)

56

What are all neuronal elements of the eye derived from

Optic vessicle of prosencephalon

57

What are the optic nerves composed of?

Axons of multipolar neurons in the ganglionic layer

58

What is the layer of optic nerve in the retina formed by?

Axons of multiple multipolar neurons

59

Name the layers of the eyeball

Fibrous tunic, vascular tunic, internal sensory

60

What is the uvea formed by?

Iris, ciliary body, and choroidea

61

What is the choroidea and where is it located?

The vascular tunic located in the posterior portion of the eyeball

62

Name the 10 layers of the retina from inner surface to outward

Internal limiting membrane, layer of nerve fibers, ganglionic layer of the retina, inner plexiform layer, inner nuclear layer,outer plexiform layer, external nuclear layer, external limiting membrane, rods and cones/Jacob's membrane, pigmented epithelium

63

Where do glial cells of muller (vertical) extend and mark?

Between the internal and external limiting membranes

64

What retinal layer are horizontal cells located?

Outer plexiform layer

65

What is the outer layer of the retina

Pigmented epithelium

66

What are lamina cribrosa and what penetrates them

Very thin choroid and sclera layers, penetrated by the optic nerve fibers at the optic disc

67

Where does the optic nerve enter the cranial cavity?

Thru the optic canal of the lesser wing of the sphenoid bone

68

What happens at the optic chiasm?

The optic nerve fibers from the medial half of both eyes decussate

69

What does the left optic tract carry optic nerve fibers from

The left half of both eyes

70

Axons of the secondary optic neurons end where?

at the lateral geniculate body

71

What is the principle nucleus of termination of the optic nerves

lateral geniculate nucleus

72

What is initiated at the edinger-westphal nucleus involving the optic nerve

Nucleus of origin of the reflex movement of the sphincter pupillae muscle

73

The right and left cortical centers of vision are interconnected by what and this forms what?

Corpus callosum, forms forceps posticus

74

What is hemianopia

Pathology caused by optic tract lesion

75

What occurs at edinger-westphal nuclues in regards to the oculomotor nerve

Visceral nucleus of origin of the oculomotor nerve for parasympathetic nervous system

76

Name 5 things the oculomotor nerve passes thru

Tegmentum,red nucleus, Medial part of substantia nigra, Lateral wall of cavernous sinus, Interpeduncular sulcus/fossa (emerges here)

77

What does oculomotor nerve communicate with at the lateral wall of the cavernous sinus?

Opthalmic nerve

78

What is the function of the oculomotor/opthalmic nerve communication?

Proprioceptive information from the five extrinsic eye muscles

79

Name 2 muscles which are innervated by superior ramus of the oculomotor nerve

Levator palpebrae superioris and superior rectus

80

What 3 things does the inferior ramus of the oculomotor nerve innervate

Medial rectus, inferior rectus, and inferior obliqus

81

What occurs at the ciliary ganglion

Most presynaptic neurons of the edinger-westphal nucleus synape with postganglionic fibers

82

What does the opthalmic nerve receive?

Proprioceptive fibers from the 5 extrinsic eye muscles

83

What does the internal carotid plexus control

Vasomotor of the extrinsic muscles

84

What is Brodman area 8?

The cortical center of the oculomotor nerve

85

What is the superior central gyrus the cortical area for?

Eye movement

86

Which visceral muscle is not controlled by sympathetic nervous system?

Constrictor pupillae

87

What does the superior cervical ganglion give off and what does it carry

The internal carotid nerve which carries major sympathetic nerves for the head

88

Name the nuclei of prigin of the preganglionic neurons for the parasympathetic nervous system

Edinger-westphal, superior and inferior salvatory, dorsal vagus

89

What do the cervical and middle cervical ganglia hold?

postganglionic neurons in the sympathetic nervous system

90

Where is the sympathetic nervous system distributed

Vascular and somatic nervous systems

91

Where are preganglionic neurons of the sympathetic nervous system located

Lateral horn of cord at levels T1-L2 or L3

92

The preganglionic nerve fibers of the lateral intermediate substance cells pass thru the ______ as a _____ to a sympathetic ganglion

Ventral horn, white ramus communicantes

93

Most cranial nerves communicate with postganglionic fibers from what?

The superior cervical ganglion

94

The major sympathetic nerve into the head:

Internal carotid plexus

95

Where does the trochlear nerve decussate

In the tectum

96

Where does the trochlear nerve enter the dura mater

Anterior margin of the cerebellar tentorium

97

What nerves communicate w the trochlear nerve and for what purposes?

Opthalmic branch of trigeminal,- for proprioceptive fiber from superior obliqus

98

A lesion affecting the trochlear nerve leaves you unable to do what

Look down and lateral

99

Name the masticating muscles

Masseter, medial and lateral pterygoid, and temporalis

100

What are the masticating muscles innervated by

Branchial motor fibers of trigeminal

101

Name the 2 deglutinating muscles

Anterior belly digastric and mylohyoid

102

What are the deglutinating muscles innervated by?

trigeminal nerve

103

The sensory root of the trigeminal nerve is smaller or bigger than the motor root?

Bigger

104

Where is the trigeminal ganglion located

IN the dura mater fold on the trigeminal impression of the petrosal portion of the temporal bone

105

Name the 3 nuclei of termination for the trigeminal nerve

Mesencephalic, pontine, and spinal nuclei

106

What 3 nuclei of termination do the cental processes of the trigeminal ganglion synapse within

Mesencephalic, pontine and spinal nuclei

107

Name the cranial nerves which send sensory info to the spinal nucleus of the trigeminal nerve

V- trigeminal, VII- facial, IX- glossopharyngeal, X- Vagus

108

Spinal nucleus of trigeminal in the MO is continuous in the spinal cord as what?

The substantia gelatinosa of Roland

109

All of the following cranial nerves send their primary sensory neuron from their sensory ganglia to the spinal nucleus of the trigeminal, except:

trochlear nerve, facial nerve. glossopharyngeal nerve, vagus nerve

110

The opthalmic nerve communicated with what nerves and for what reason

Oculomotor, trochlear, and abducens for proprioceptive sensory nerves

111

What nerve carries the recurrent meningeal nerve of the opthalmic nerve and where does it carry it to

Trochlear nerve carries it to the tentorium cerebelli

112

Opthalmic supplies sensory to the tentorium cerebelli thru via which nerve?

Tentorial nerve

113

The opthalmic nerve exits the cranial cavity thru what

Superior orbital fissure

114

Where does the opthalmic nerve divide and what does it divide into

Just before entering the orbital cavity thru the superior orbital fissure, divides into lacrimal, frontal, and nasociliary nerves

115

Where does the lacrimal nerve enter the orbit

Thru lateral part of superior orbital fissure

116

What does the lacrimal nerve receive

A branch from the zygomaticotemporal nerve of the maxillary nerve

117

Name all nerves that pass thru SOF

oculomotor, trochlear, trigeminal, abducens, opthalmic (3-6)

118

What does the frontal nerve lie above

The levator palpebrae superioris

119

What does the supraorbital nerve innevate?

Skin of forehead, scalp, and frontal sinus mucosa

120

Name all sensory nerves which involve transmitting itching sense from apex of nose to trigeminal ganglion (in order)

External nasal nerve to anterior ethmoidal nerve to nasociliary nerve to opthalmic nerve to trigeminal nerve- to mesencephalic or spinal or trigeminal nucleus of termination

121

Which 4 nerves pass thru the common tendinous ring of the extrinsic eye muscles

Nasociliary, oculomotor, abducens, opthalmic

122

What other thing also pass thru the common tendinous ring of the extrinsic eye muscles

superior ramus

123

Where does the anterior ethmoidal nerve enter the nasal cavity

Thru a slit of the lateral side of the crista galli

124

Where does the supratrochlear nerve pass

Above the trochlea of the superior oblique muscle

125

What does the supraorbital nerve innervate

Skin of forehead

126

Name the nerve which runs anteriorly in the eyeball between the sclera and the choroid to the ciliary body, iris and cornea:

nasociliary nerve, long ciliary nerve, optic nerve, anterior ethmoidal nerve

127

The nasociliary nerve communicates with the ciliay gangion mainly for the fibers of:

Somatic sensory nerve

128

The ciliary ganglion gives off the ____ to the _____

Long ciliary nerves to the ciliary body, iris, and cornea

129

Where does the long ciliary nerve travel

Runs forwards of the eyeball btween the sclera and the choroid to the cilliary body, iris, and cornea

130

Name 3 fiber types included in the short ciliary nerve

Sympathetic, parasympathetic, somatic sensory

131

What are sphenoid sinuses innervated by

Posterior ethmoidal nerve

132

Where does the maxillary nerve pass?

Horizontally forward along the lower part of the lateral wall of the cavernous dural venous sinus

133

All of the following nerves enter the orbit thru the inferior orbital fissure except:

Zygomatic nerve of maxillary nerve, Maxillary nerve, mandibular nerve, orbital nerve of the pterygopalatine ganglion

134

Where does the posterior superior alveolar nerve branch from and where does it go

Branches off the maxillary nerve in the pterygopalatine fossa

135

What nerve accompanies the frontal branch of the middle meningeal artery?

Middle meningeal artery

136

The ganglionic nerves of the maxillary nerve connect to:

Pterygopalatine ganglion

137

What does the zygomaticofacial nerve do

Innervates the skin on the prominence of the cheek

138

Where does the middle superior alveolar nerve arise from

Infraorbital nerve

139

Name the largest peripheral ganglion of the parasympathetic nervous system

Pterygopalatine ganglion

140

The pterygopalatine ganglion receives three roots including all of the following except:

sympathetic visceral root of superior cervical ganglion, Parasympathetic visceral root of the facial nerve, somatic sensory root of mandibular ganglionic nerve, general sensory root of the maxillary ganglionic nerve

141

Where does the nasopalatine nerve lie?

In the vomer groove of the nasal septum

142

What does the pharyngeal nerve of the nasal nerve innervate?

Mucous membrane on the torus tubaris

143

What does the lesser palatine nerve of pterygopalatine innervate?

innervates the palatine tonsil

144

Name the pathway of the taste impulse from the palate to the tractus solitarius in sequence

Palate to palatine nerve to pterygopalatine ganglion to nerve of ptyrygoid canal and greater pertrosal nerve to facial ganglio to nervus intermedius to tractus solitarius

145

The sensory root of the mandibular nerve emerges from

foramen ovale of sphenoid.

146

Name the Branchial motor nuclei and nerves

(V3,7,9,10,11)Trigeminal motor, facial, nucleus ambiguous (9,10), spinal accessory nuclei

147

Name the parasympathetic (visceral motor) nuclei and nerves

(3,7,9,10) accessory Oculomotor of edinger-westphal, superior and inferior salvatory, dorsal vagus nuclei

148

Name the somatic (motor) efferent nuclei and neres

3,4,6,12 oculomotor motor, trochlear motor, abducens motor, hypoglossal motor

149

where does the mandibular nerve emerge

foramen ovale of sphenoid

150

what is the mandibular nerve located between?

tensor veli palatini (medially) and lateral pterygoid (laterally)

151

where does mandibular nerve enter skull thru

foramen spinosum of sphenoid

152

what supplies the tensor veli palatini?

nerve to medial pterygoid (of mandibular)

153

what innervates the temporomandibular joint?

masseteric nerve (of mandibular)

154

what is a branch from posterior trunk of mandibular nerve

auroculotemporal nerve

155

what does the auriculotemporal nerve encircle

middle meningeal artery (of maxillary artery)

156

what does the auriculotemporal nerve (of mandibular) pass btween

sphenoandibular ligament and neck of mandible

157

what do parotid branches of auriculotemporal (of mandibular) supply?

convey secretomotor fibers to parotid gland

158

the chorda tympani of the facial nerve joins with which other nerve

lingual nerve (of mandibular)

159

the chorda tympani, via the lingual nerve carry what info and to what?

carry parasympathetic efferent to the submandibular ganglion

160

what nerve is connected to the submandibular ganglion?

lingual (of mandibular)

161

postganglionic fibers from submandiblar ganglion are carried to which 3 glands

sublingual, anterior lingual, and submandibular glands

162

what does the inferior alveolar nerve pass between

btween sphenomandibular lig and ramus of mandible

163

what accompanies the inferior alveolar nerve

inferior alveolar artery of _____

164

where is the mylohyoid nerve (branch of inf alveolar n) located (sulcus?)

mylohyoid groove/sulcus

165

what does the mylohyoid nerve pass under

mylohyoid m

166

what js trigeminal neuroglia aka

tic douloureux

167

pain from ulcer or tongue cancer radiates to where (distribution of which nerve??)

ear and temporal fossa, distribution of auriculotemporal n