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Flashcards in POB Exam 3 Deck (147):
1

Charles Darwin contributed what to the biological evolution

Came up with the first theory (Natural Selection)

2

Did Darwin invent the concept of evolution?

False no

3

Lamarck’s theory of evolution was mainly about

Inheritance of acquired characteristics

Ex) if short giraffe stretched neck enough to get food it would get taller

4

Darwin theory log evolution was mainly about

Evolution by natural selection

Ex) small giraffes could not reach food from tree so they died out leaving giraffes who were tall and could get food to pass there genes down to next generation.
Eventually only tall giraffes

5

What are the evidence of evolution

Fossil and structure

6

What are fossils

Remains of traces of the past

7

How are fossils created

Quick Barisal and accumulation of sediments
After being buried in sediment and hardened rock organic material slowly get washed away

If space remains it is a mold

If silica fills the space is a cast

8

A dead animal is more likely to become fossilized if

It dies in a river delta with much sediment (by you have to be buried quickly to become a fossil-sedimentation is perfect)

9

What are transitional forms

Shows form transition
Ex) reduced hind limbs and pelvic bones in Whales which used to have a form of 4 legs (cetaceans)

10

Vestigial structures are what

Anatomical structure with a function in one group of organism but are reduced and possibly no function in a closely related group

Lost and reduced structure
Ex) appendix and whale hind limbs

11

Archaea are closely related to what?

Eukaryotes

Both have histones

12

What are the main characteristic of archaea

-Single cell genome and closed circular DNA molecule
-Plasma membrane
(One single lipid layer w/ branch side chains)
-No nucleus
-prokaryote
-live in extreme environments

13

What are the three main type of archaea

Halophiles

Thermoacidophiles

Methanogens

14

What are Halophile archaea

They live in extremely salty environments like the Dead Sea

15

Thermoacidophiles are what type of archaea

They are kinda that live in extremely hot and acidic environments like Hot springs or underwater thermal vents

16

What kind of archaea are methanogens

They live in anaerobic environments (no oxygen) for example in animal stomachs (cows)

They use co2 and hydrogen as an energy source

17

What are some characteristics of bacteria

-They have flagella for locomotion
-Fimbriae for binding on to things (hooks)
-they have a single circular chromosome
They have a peptidoglycan layer that is either thick or thin

18

When conducting gram stain to classify bacteria what are the colors purple and pink indicate

Purple mean that the bacteria has a thick layer of peptidoglycan

Pink means they have a thin layer of peptidoglycan

Purple is longer than pink so therefore thicker

19

What are the 3 different types of metabolism in bacteria

Heterotrophs

Chemoautotrophs

Photo autotrophs

20

What are heterotrophs

They are organisms that must seek food to gain energy

21

What are chemoautotrophs

They use chemical compounds to get energy

22

What are photo autotrophs

They use photosynthesis to get energy

Ex) Cyanobacteria (blue green algae)

23

What are the three bacteria shapes

Rod (bacillus )
Spherical (coccus)
Spiral/helical (spirillus)

24

What are the 3 types of gene transfer that bacteria perform

Conjugation

Transformation

Transduction

25

Conjugation is what

Bacteria passing dna by means of a sex pillus

26

Transformation is what

When bacteria takes up dna from it environment because there are dead bacteria in environment

27

What is transduction

Viruses carry bacterial dna from one cell to the other

28

What are some diseases that are cause by bacteria?

Streptococcus
Staphylococcus
Food poisoning
- salmonella
Clostridium botulinum

29

What are the basic characteristics of a virus

They are obligated parasites (they need a host to survive)
They are acellular
They are made up of two parts: capsid (outer shell) and nucleaic acid core of (DNA or RNA)

30

What are the steps of viral reproduction

Attachment - spike combine w receptor
Entry- virus enter cell uncoating occur
Replication- many copies made of virus
Biosynthesis - bio components synthesis
Assembly - build virus new
Budding - envelopes and spike of new virus form

31

What are prions

They are misfolded proteins that cause other proteins to fold as well (they are bad influences)

32

Examples of prions include

Scrapie -sheep
Mad cow disease (bovine spongiform encephalopathy) -cow
Creutzfeld Jacob disease -human
Fatal familial insomnia -human
Chronic wasting disease -dear

33

What is a homologous structure

Characteristic with underlying similarity but different function
Evolved from same creature different function

Ex) human hand and whale flipper

34

What is an analogous structure

Similarity of characteristic resulting from separately evolved structures that have similar function

Separate evolution same function

Ex) human eye and octopus eye

35

What does biochemical homologies refer to regarding to evolution

All organisms share many characteristics on a molecular level

Ex: all life has dna or rna, genetic code,

36

Early stages of development in different animal species not visible in adults show what

Ex) embryos of animals

Evidence for evolution

37

The wing of a bee and a wing of a bird is what kind of structure ( homologous or analogous)

Analogous

38

What is artificial selection

It is a type of human directed evolution
That increases frequency of desired traits

Ex$ breeding dogs and guppies

39

What is micro evolution

A change of allele frequency in a population over time

Ex peppered moths
Black populations then industrial revolution and white populations flourished

40

Do individuals evolve

No,
populations evolve individuals don’t

41

What is a gene pool

Sum of total of all alleles of all genes in a population

42

What is hardy Weinberg equilibrium

No evolution is occurring - Allele frequency doesn’t change

No mutation
No genetic drift
No gene flow
Random mating
No selection

43

What are the mechanisms of evolution

Mutations
Genetic drift
Gene flow
Non random mating
Natural selection

44

What is a mutation

New mutation causes allele frequency in a population to change
Only source of new alleles in population

45

What is genetic drift

[Chance events that can cause allele frequency to fluctuate ]unpredictably from on generation to the next

Smaller pop get effected more

Has bottleneck effect and founder effect

46

What is the bottle neck effect

Catastrophy kills large number of individuals leaving small surviving population

Leads loss of genetic diversity

Ex) prairie chickens
Populations down to loss of habitat
Low reproduction due to low genetic diversity (fragile shell)

47

What is the founder effect

A few individuals colonize a new habitat
Group of colonist likely less genetically diverse than original population

Ex) polydactylly in old order Amish in Lancaster Pennsylvania

48

Gene flow is what

Movement of alleles between populations

Mixes genetic diversity
Keeps gene pools of two or more populations similar

49

Non random mating

Occurs when individuals are selective about choosing a mate

Random mating usually doesn’t occur bc reproducing organism choose mate based on trait

50

Natural selection

Heritable variations
And
Over reproduction

Hereditary trait provides an organism with an advantage over those without trait, holder of trait may have a greater fitness level

51

How is fitness measured

Amount of viable offspring an organisms has

Contribute to fitness level

52

What are the 3 types of natural selection

Stabilizing
Directional
Disruptive

53

What is stabilizing selection

Extreme phenotypes are selected agains
Individuals near the average phenotypes are favored

Ex: small and big babies are bad but average size is good

54

Directional selection is what

One extreme phenotype is favored

Ex) small horse ancestor becoming big horse

55

Disruptive selection is What

Two or more extreme phenotypes are selected for (or against)

Ex) two diff habitats results into diff phenotype in population
Snails with diff shade of shell

56

One allele is always more fit than another allel no matter what environment
T OR F

False

57

What is the heterozygous advantage of sickles cell anemia

If you have homozygous for sickle cell disease you can die (bad)

If you are heterozygous (you get sickle cell at low oxygen but you are protected against malaria) (neutral)

You have no health affect (good but can get malaria)

58

What is macroevolution

Evolution involving speciation and divergence of life into all it form

59

What is speciation

Two different populations of a single species evolve into separate species

60

What is the biological species concept

A group of organisms capable of interbreeding and reproductively isolated from other organisms

61

What are the prezygotic isolating mechanisms

Habitat isolation (live in different places)
Temporal isolation (breed at diff times)
Behavioral isolation (diff courtship rituals)
Mechanical isolation (sex organ not compatible)
Gametic isolation ( gametes not compatible)

62

Post zygote isolating mechanisms

Sterile hybrids and reduced hybrid fertility

Mules can’t have babies

63

Which mechanism of evolution must not be present during speciation

Gene flow

64

Allopathic speciation is what

Geographical barriers separate a population into two diff species

Ex) salamanders in Cali

65

Sympatric speciation is what

Speciation occurs I same region

Ex) snail

66

What is adaptive radiation

Proliferation of a species by adaption to different ways of life

Ex) Galapagos finches

67

What is systematics biology

Study of evolution history of biodiversity

68

What is taxonomy and taxon

Identifying naming and classify organism

Taxon is group of organisms that share a set of traits

69

Phylogenetically is what

Studies the evolutionary relatedness of group of organisms

70

What did the Louis Pasteur experiment of spontaneous generation figure out

Disproved the idea of spontaneous life formation by using a regular test tube and one with a goose neck

71

What are the steps in microbial life

Organic monomers
Organic polymers
Protobionts
Living cell

72

What is the Oparin and Haldane hypothesis

Life comes from small inorganic molecules to form organic monomers

73

What is the miller Urey experiment

Try to test out the Oparin and half and hypothesis (by using inorganic materials heated up inside test tubes to create organic monomers)

74

Many bacteria have what that creates antibiotic resistant

Plasmids

75

Bacteria reproduce by what

Asexual binary fission

76

Bacterial diseases

Streptococcus infections (most common)

Staphylococcus

Food poisoning

77

Streptococcus infections include what

-Pharyngitis (strep throat)
-Impetigo (in infants-mild skin disease)
-Scarlet fever (red rash)
-Rheumatic fever (auto immune infection cause by untreated strep throat)

78

Staphylococcus aureus

20% are carriers
Skin infection
MRSA (resistant to methicillin)

79

Food poisoning

Two types:
Clostridium botulinum- immediate infection from canned foods

Salmonella - causes symptoms after several days (slow)

80

Antibiotics do what to bacteria

Inhibit protein synthesis and cell wall biosynthesis

81

Problems with antibiotic treatment

Allergic reaction
Kill of good bacteria (normal flora)
Bacteria resistance

82

What is the rhinovirus

It is the common cold

83

What is influenza virus

It is the flu

84

What is antigenic drift

Evolution of virus by mutation

85

What is antigenic shift

New virus is created by combination of two different viruses

Ex) two diff virus infect same cell and exchange spike gene

Reasortment of virus - animal mixes with human viruses

86

Do protist have a nucleus

Yes

87

Protist are eukaryotes that are

Not plants animal or fungi

88

Do protist have sex and meiosis

Yes

89

All eukaryotes have what

Mitochondria

90

What are autotrophs protist

Produce food by photosynthesis
Ex algae

91

What are heterotrophs protist

Eat bacteria an other protist
Protozoans

92

Heterotrophs parasitic

Derive nutrients from host which is harmed by interaction

93

What are mixotrophs protist

They used photosynthetic and heterotrophy

94

Do green algae have sex

Yes

95

Archaeplastids are what

The ancient chloroplast (origin of chloroplast)

96

What is a charophyte

Green algae

Ex) spirogyra

97

What is a spirogyra

Filmentous green algae
W/ ribbon like chloroplast

Sexual reproduction by conjugation
Cell wall connects with tube and haploid cell fuse

98

Chromalveolates are what

Very large group of protistans

Include:
Dinoflagellates
Ciliates
Brown algae
Diatoms

99

What are diatoms

They are unicellular
Autotrophs
That live in fresh and marine environments
That have a cell wall made of silica (glassy)

100

Brown algae are what

Multicellular autotrophs
That live one marine environment
Ex) Include kelp (brown because of pigments)

Primary producers for diverse and productive community

101

Ciliates are what

Unicellular are heterotrophs
Use Cillia for movement and to sweep food up into mouths

Ex) Paramecium

102

Dinoflagellates are what

Unicellular autotrophs but have some heterotrophs

Live in marine environment

Bioluminescent when agitated (glow oceans )

Cause of red tide (create neurontoxins)

103

What are excavates: euglena

Uni cellular mixotrophs that live in fresh water

They have flagella w/ eye spots (detect light) and excavate to feed (feeding groove)

104

Amoebozoans include

Amoeboids
Plasmodial slime molds

105

Amoeboids

Live in fresh water

Pseudopodia to move around

Eats things by phagocytosis by engulfing things

106

Plasmodial slime molds

Unicellular heterotrophs that eats dead things
Multi nucleus
Spores release amoebae
Phagocytosis to I jest food

107

Slim mold life cycle

Diploid multinucleate plasmodium
Plasmodium developers many sporangia During unfavorable condition
Spores survive until moist and able to germinate
Spite release haploid amoebae
Haploid amoebae eat decomposes and reproduce or act as gametes and fuse

108

Opisthokonts: Fungi include what

Sac fungi and club fungi

109

Sac fungi

Ascocarp - cup like sexual reproductive structure
Asexual spores produced by conidia

Ex) yeast and cup fungi

110

Club fungi

Sexual reproductive structure called basidium

Contained within basidocarp

Ex) mushroom, shelf fungi, giant puff ball

111

Lichens are what

Association bw fungi and Cyanobacteria or green algae

Can colonize on rocks
Primary colonizers

112

Mycorrhizae are what

Mutualistic relationship with plant roots

Allow plant to grow better

113

Land plants are part of what group

Archaeplastids

114

Evolutionary history of plants

Land plants - evolved from green algae
First appeared 450 million years

Adv: Moved to land because more sunlight and fewer herbivore initially

Dis: gametes and zygotes and embryos must be kept moist
Need water throughout body

115

Five major evolutionary events for plants

Development of embryo protection
Vascular tissue
Megaphylls (large leaves)
Seeds
Flowers

116

Plants have life cycle with alternate generations? What mean?

Two multicellular individuals alternate beach producing the other

-sporophyte (diploid) produce spore by meiosis

-gametophyte (haploid) produce gamete by mitosis
Sperm and egg fuse forming diploid zygote

117

In land meiosis leads directly to a gamete

False

118

What has changed as plants adapted to land as time goes on

The size of gametophte has decreased
The size of sporophyte has increase

119

What is an example of a non vascular plant

Mosses

120

Characteristic of mosses

-No vasc tissues & seeds
-Live in moist environments
-Gametophyte generation is dominant (main growing stage does photosynthesis)
-flagellated sperm
-sporophyte relies on parent plant
Spores realessed from capsule grow into new gametophyte

121

Seedless vascular plants: what are vascular plants

Plants that have true roots, stems and leaves

122

Roots do what

Anchor and absorbed water and nutrient from soil

123

Stems do what

Provide structure for plant and conduct water to the leaves

124

What do leaves do

Allow exchange of gasses and regulates water evaporation

125

What are two groups of seedless vascular plants and what is the dominant generation (sporophyte or gametophyte)

Lycophytes and ferns and their relatives

Sporophyte is the dominant generation

126

Ferns

Seedless vascular plant
Sporophyte dominant
Fronds (the leaves) grow from horizontal stem
- often compounded with leaflets
Spores are found under fronds
-fiddle heads often are edible

127

Lycophytes

Also known as club mosses

Among 1st plants with vascular tissue
Well-developed roots, stems and leaves
-sends up upright stems
-small leave called microphylls with single vein
- sporangia are brine in terminal clusters of leaves

128

Fern seeds form in the bottom of fronds of leaves (true or false)

False, spores form under the fronds

129

Seedless vascular plants dominant what period

Carboniferous period

130

What are the two seed plants that are the most plentiful plants today?
How do they differ

Gymnosperms and angiosperms

They differ by
Gymnosperms have only seeds
Angiosperms have seed and flowers

131

What does a seed coat contain?

It contains an embryo and stored food

so that the embryo can survive long periods of dormancy

132

What does pollination mean

Pollen grains are carried to female part of plants containing ovules

133

What is an ovule

The egg and surrounding supportive tissue

134

What happens during fertilization

Pollen grows a pollen tube to the egg and deposits sperm cells

Ovule matures into a seed

135

What are examples of gymnosperms

Conifers and ginkgoes

Pine tree

136

Where are the ovules located on gymnosperms

Located on surface of cones

137

What are conifers (the best known gymnosperms)

They are adapted to cold dry weather
Have needle like leaves
Pollen cones and seed cones

Used for paper and wood

Basically a Christmas tree

138

What are ginkgoes

They are gymnosperms
Ginkgo biloba (only surviving species)
Female tree produce bad smell seed
Male tree used for ornamental plant

Resistant to disease and pollution

139

What are angiosperms

Plants with flowers and fruit

140

Explain the growth is seed in angiosperm

Seeds develop from an ovule within an ovary (the vessel)

Ovary becomes the fruit

Produces covered seeds (not naked)

141

What are the structures of a flower

Receptacle (stalk that bears flower)
Sepal (calyx) green part on bottom
Petals (corolla) modifies leave color
Stamens (male part of flower)
Carpel (pistil) female part of flower

142

What is the receptacle of a flower

It is the stalk the bears and holds the flowers

143

What is the sepal or calyx

The Green leaves at the base of the flower that also protect the bud

144

Petals (corolla) what are they

Modified leaves that are color full and attract pollinators

145

What are the stamen of the flower and what makes it up

It is the male reproductive part of the flower

Consist of the
Anther- pollen production
Filament - the stalk

146

What is the carpel (pistil) on the flower

It is the female reproductive structure

It consist of a
stigma (at top)- for pollen
Style- elevate stigma (the stalk)
Ovary- ovule production and containment (become fruit)

147

What part of the flower becomes the fruit

Ovary which holds the ovule becomes the fruit