Poetry: Devices and figurative language COPY COPY Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Poetry: Devices and figurative language COPY COPY Deck (74):
1

enjambement

a run-on line, continuing into the next without a grammatical break
(no comma at the end of a line)

2

metaphor

a figure of speech which makes a direct comparison of unlike objects using identification or substitution

3

simile

a figure of speech which makes a direct comparison of two unlike objects, using the works like or as

4

Conceit

an extended metaphor, used to create a powerful effect

5

personification

giving objects/animals human qualities

6

apostrophe

an address to a person or personified object not present (or dead)

(Oh sun, please shine on my flowers)

7

Metonymy

the substitution of a word which relates to the object or person to be named in place of the name itself

(not part of the whole)
(the SERPENT lied to me)

8

Synecdoche

a part of something represents the whole object/idea (unlike metonymy)

(the TONGUE lied to me)

9

hyperbole

an exaggeration/overstatement for effect

10

litotes

a form of understatement in which the negative of an antonym is used to achieve emphasis and intensity

11

irony

the contrast between actual meaning and another meaning

verbal: oral
dramatic: audience knowledge vs character knowledge
situational: unexpected outcome of a situation

12

symbolism

the use of one object to suggest another, hidden object/idea

13

imagery

the use of words to represent things/actions/ideas by sensory description

14

paradox

a seemingly self-contradictory statement that underlines a basis of truth

15

oxymoron

contradictory terms used together to expressed a paradox for strong effect

16

allusion

a reference to an outside fact, event or another source

17

Allegory

a story or narrative, often told at some length, which has a deeper meaning below the surface

18

Ambiguity

use of language where the meaning is unclear or has two or more possible interpretations or meanings

19

Ambivalence

indicates more than one possible attitude is being displayed by the writer towards a character, theme, or idea, etc

20

Anachronism

something that is historically inaccurate

21

Anthropomorphism

the endowment of something that is not human with human characteristics

22

Antithesis

contrasting ideas or words that are balanced against each other

23

Archaic

language that is old-fashioned - not completely obsolete but no longer in current use

24

Atmosphere

the prevailing mood created by a piece of writing

25

Caricature

a character described through the exaggeration of a small number of features that he or she possesses

26

Catharsis

a purging of the emotions which takes place at the end of a tragedy

27

Cliché

a phrase, idea, or image that has been used so much that it has lost much of its original meaning, impact, and freshness

28

Colloquial

ordinary, everyday speech and language

29

Comedy

originally simply a play or other work which ended happily. Now we use this term to describe something that is funny and which makes us laugh.

30

Connotation

an implication or association attached to a word or phrase

31

Denouement

the ending of a play, novel, or drama where 'all is revealed' and the plot is unraveled

32

Diction

the choice of words that a writer makes

33

Didactic

a work that is intended to preach or teach, often containing a particular moral or political point

34

Dramatic monologue

a poem or prose piece in which a character addresses an audience

35

End Stopping

a verse line with a pause or a stop at the end of it

36

Euphemism

expressing an unpleasant or unsavory idea in a less blunt and more pleasant way

37

Euphony

use of pleasant or melodious sounds

38

Figurative language

language that is symbolic or metaphorical and not meant to be taken literally

39

Lament

a poem expressing intense grief

40

Motif

a dominant theme, subject, or idea which runs through a piece of literature

41

Parody

a work that is written in imitation of another work, very often with the intention of making fun of the original

42

Pastoral

generally, literature concerning rural life with idealizes settings and rustic characters

43

Pathos

the effect in literature which makes the reader feel sadness or pity

44

Pun

a play on words that have similar sounds but quite different meanings

45

Refrain

repetition throughout a poem of a phrase, line, or series of lines, as in the 'chorus' of a song

46

Satire

the highlighting or exposing of human failings or foolishness within a society through ridiculing them

47

Sestet

the last six lines of a sonnet

48

Soliloquy

a speech in which a character, alone on stage, expresses his or her thoughts and feelings aloud for the benefit of the audience, often in a revealing way

49

Style

the individual way in which a writer has used language to express his or her ideas

50

Syntax

the way in which sentences are structured

51

Theme

the central idea or ideas that the writer explores through a text

52

tone

a literary technique created through the combined effects of a number of features, such as diction, syntax, rhythm, etc

53

caesura

a break within a line of verse

54

carpe diem

saying that means to make the most of the present and give little thought to the future

55

chiasmus

inverted words

56

description

text that explains/describes something to help the reader visualize it

57

dues ex machina

God's hand/unexcepted force changes a seemingly hopeless situation

58

digression

a temporary departure from the main subject in speech or writing.

59

ellipsis

the omission of word(s) that are significant/necessary in a sentence

series of dots

60

epigraph

a short quotation or saying at the beginning of a book or chapter, intended to suggest its theme

61

epilogue

a conclusion

62

epiphany

when a character receives sudden insight

63

exposition

explanation of background information to the audience

64

in medias res

middle of a narrative

65

jargon

use of specific phrases in a particular situation/profession for conveying hidden meanings understood in that situation/profession

66

leitmotif

a repeating theme associated with a person, idea or situation

67

lyrical

a work that can be sung, or a work with an enthusiastic tone

68

myth

a legend/traditional story about an event/hero/gods with little factual explanations

69

nom de plume

a pen name

70

parable

a simple story with a moral/spiritual lesson

71

parallelism

the balance in one or more sentences that are grammatically identical

(ex: the -ing, -ing, -ing)

72

persona

the character/speaker in a first-person poem

73

syllogism

a conclusion derived from using reason on previous statements

Usually a flawed conclusion

74

volta

in an Italian sonnet, the point when the feelings changes; usually between the octave and the sestet