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Pharm II Exam 4 > Poisons & Antidotes > Flashcards

Flashcards in Poisons & Antidotes Deck (16):
1

What happens when Paraquat is ingested?

It causes mouth/throat pain/swelling, severe GI problems, and pulmonary fibrosis

2

Describe the mechanism of the organophosphate parathione.

It is an insecticide that when inhaled is metabolized to paraoxon which phosphorylates acetylcholinesterase resulting in ACh crisis from high levels of ACh.

3

What happens when you inhale parathione?

SLUDGE sx (salivation, lacrimation, urination, diaphoresis, GI upset, emesis) and killer Bs (bronchospasm, bronchorrhea, bradycardia).

4

What is the antidote for parathione poisoning?

Atropine (antimuscarinic competitor) and pralidoxime (acetylcholinesterase activator)

5

Describe the mechanism of the methemoglobinemia inducing toxins.

Results from exposure to nitrates, aromatic amines, nitro compounds, abx and local anesthetics.

6

What is the antidote for methemoglobinemia inducers?

Methylene blue- it acts as an electron donor to reduce Fe+++ (ferric) of methemoglobin to Fe++ (ferrous)

7

Describe the mechanism of the toxin cyanide.

It's a chemical asphyxiant that binds and inhibits cytochrome oxidase (binds Fe+++ in cytochrome a3) blocking aerobic respiration

8

Where can cyanide be found?

Metal plating, apricot pits, cassava, other plants/seeds, nitriles metabolized to CN, nitroprusside, amygdalin, burning plastics/synthetics

9

What is the antidote for cyanide poisoning?

Either amyl/sodium nitrates (form methemoglobin so less used) or hydroxycobalamin + sodium thiosulfate

10

What is the antidote for metal poisoning?

Chelation via dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA)

11

What does mercury toxicity cause?

CNS toxicity

12

What does lead toxicity cause?

Renal damage, learning/emotional disabilities, interference w/ vitamin D synthesis/calcium, heme synthesis/iron

13

What happens with copper toxicity?

Liver/blood/kidney toxicity

14

What happens with cadmium toxicity?

Osteomalacia, testicular damage

15

What happens with arsenic toxicity?

PVD, skin cancer

16

Describe the mechanism of the toxin Paraquat.

It is an herbicide that when ingested is selectively taken up by alveolar cells, creating oxidative stress causing lipid peroxidation and cell death.