Flashcards in Political Organization and the Maintenance of Order- Lecture Deck (126):
What deals with redistribution of power and authority?
What is political organization a mechanism for?
- maintaining order in the society,
- reducing disorder
- regulating and controlling people's behaviour
describe the political organization of the Ju/'hoansi?
- don't have hierarchy or chain of command
- in principle, they do have a political system because there is a person who is considered or seen as the leader (ex. good hunter, social opt to navigate conflicts in a relationship)
- not a stable office, not elected
What are the two ways of maintaining order?
- internalized controls
- externalized controls
What are internalized controls?
- individual chooses to behave properly
What is internalized controls in terms of behaviour governed by?
- fear of divine punishment or magical retaliation
- believe that antisocial actions cause decrees
Are internalized controls sufficient by themselves to maintain order in societies?
no, they are generally not sufficient enough
what are externalized controls?
What are the 2 types of sanctions?
positive or negative
- informal (custom) or formal (what we can "law")
What are Christian values an example of?
What is externalized controls the idea of?
What are examples of formal and informal externalized controls?
- Formal: law, formulating customs and traditions into law
- Informal: tend to refer to as custom or tradition
What is a mix of cultural and social control mechanisms?
What are positive sanctions?
- Positive sanctions reward appropriate behaviour
What are negative sanctions?
- Negative sanctions punish behaviour
What are informal sanctions? What are formal sanctions?
- Informal sanctions involve gossip, public criticism, withdrawal of cooperation
- Formal sanctions became legalized as "law"
What is law broadly defined as?
formal negative sanctions
What is the article "Eating Christmas in Kalahari" and example of?
What is exemplified in the article "Cross-Cultural Law: The Case of an American Gypsy"?
cultural conflict between custom and law
What are ceremonies to recognize achievements an example of?
What needs to be present in order to have a functioning political system in a society?
1) governing body, or a ruler
2) legislative or lawmaking system
3) executive system
4) law enforcement
5) Judicial system ( 'dispute resolution' system, court system)
In what ways may a society work out a governing body, or a ruler?
elected, or appointed, or by inheritance
What is an example of law enforcement?
What is a judicial system (3 things)?
- interprets and applies the law
- provides a mechanism for resolution of disputes
- represents two sides -- prosecution (assumes that the crime took place) and defense
Who is the Head of State in Canada?
Who is Julie Payette? Who is the leader of the Canadian nation?
She is the official representative of the Queen in Canada. Sh his known as the Governor General
Who is the leader of the Canadian nation?
The Prime Minister (Justin Trudeau)
How may societies maintain order with other groups (2 mechanisms)?
- a defense system (army)
- conciliation system (mediators
True or False: All societies around the world developed political systems that were called to maintain order.
Political systems were developed to maintain order with whom? What did they utilize?
- Within the cultural group, and with its neighbours
- Utilizing both, internal and external mechanisms of social control
What are the two broad categories of political systems?
- uncentralized systems
- centralized systems
What are the two types of uncentralized systems?
What are the two types of centralized systems?
What are bands?
Small group of political independent, though related, households
What is the oldest and least complicated form of political organization?
Where can bands be found?
among nomadic societies
What types of societies are bands associated with/
True or False: Bands are small, numbering at most a few hundred people.
What is an example of a band?
ju / 'hoansi
What is the shift to centralized political systems the result of?
Changes we have experienced as humans on the planet Earth. Exponential population growth, landscapes got really crowded, and resources began to get very depleted. Intricate political organizations have come to shape up themselves, resolving all kinds of problems.
True or False: Bands have no need for formal political systems.
How are decisions made in bands?
- Decisions (those affecting the band) are made with the participation of all adult members. Decisions are based on achieving consensus, and not on majority's vote
Can a leader in a band enforce their decisions?
Who can be a leader in a band (3 things)?
- could be man or woman
- does not own land/resources
- leadership is non-hereditary
What happens if the leader of a band leaves his group?
his/her leadership is automatically annulled
True or False: In a band, the leader has higher social status and receives different sorts of treatment than everyone else. In other words, they are not an equal member of society.
Why may one become a leader in a band?
Only reasons why one may become a leader is because they may be a slightly better hunter or negotiator/communicator with others than anyone else in the group, for example.
How is oder maintained in bands?
By mens of public opinion, gossip
Describe conflict resolution in bands?
- Mobility is primary means (wrongdoer leaves)
- Unhappy "vote with their feet"
how were Inuit disputes (bands) often resolved?
Through public contests (head butting, song duels)
How do principles of internalized and externalized controls come together in bands?
- People are expected to behave in accordance with customs
- People are afraid of losing face (concerned for our reputations, we don't want to be ridicule)
- Political tools for maintaining order (maintaining status quo)
What is maintaining order/status quo important in Ju culture?
Because of the general reciprocity surrounding food. Food is always shared. I you are outside of this network, then you will not eat. Shame will occur as well. There is a lot at stake of you to not be left out, pushed outside of the camp. Food is distributed in terms of generalized reciprocity.
What does each tribe consist of?
Small, autonomous local communities, which form alliances for various purposes.
Where are tribes found among?
pastoralists and horticulturalists
Why did tribes emerge?
- farming or herding can support more people than foraging,
- thus, membership is larger
How many people are usually in a tribe?
1000-20 000 people
What is economic exchange in tribes?
economic exchange is reciprocity and redistribution
Are tribes basically egalitarian?
Tribes emerge in societies where people are organized as___.
What are local autonomous communities in tribes?
What is a clan?
A clan is the group of people which all understand themselves as being members of a clan: a genealogical group which unites members of various villages into one. A clan can consist of a minimum of two villages.
How is food received in tribes? Describe?
Food is received by means of distribution.
- can come in a crisis time
- you may want to help out other people in your tribe, going to different villages who have suffered to bring resources to help them
- you need to have spare resources piled up which can occur because you are not nomadic
- stockpile for crisis moment
How are ancestors seen among pastoralists and horticulturalists?
- These people do actually track their descent
- Ancestors are not just abstract notions, they are seen as the core and the root of how people are related toe each other
- Very powerful individuals. Not seen as abstract at all
What is an important belief among tribes?
The power of the supernatural
What are some of the reasons why local communities in tribes would forma alliances?
Need alliances. These alliances are temporary. Occur when we do not live peacefully. Mobilization.
How is political organization organized in tribes?
through age grades
What is an example of political integration through age grades in Tribes in the Masai culture?
- Masai culture in (herding people in Kenia and Tanzania)
- Age sets are recruited at 14-15, 20 year intervals (from boyhood into warriors for 15 years than into 'marryablw' adults [for the next 20 years], then into elders
Leadership among tribes is___ (Big Man).
Why DOESN'T leadership imply in tribes?
governing over the group
What is an example of governance in tribes with the Kapauku people of west NewGuinea?
- chief (tonow) and the maintenance of his power
In tribes, alliances are based around other than___groups.
True or False: Tribal lifestyle is very fluid in terms of stability.
Why do you need leadership filled and acted out in much more frequent times in tribes than with foragers?
It is because of fluid environment and more outside stress that leaders need to be on alert. It is more or less permanent.
How do leaders stay in power in tribes?
Leaders need to have committed and loyal supporters. They achieve this by sharing their, giving away a lot. How you gain political power. Not by accumulating wealth, but by distributing wealth.
- You need to let people take loans from you. These loans are not repaid very very soon.
- You need your supporters to depend on you. Best way to achieve this to indent them. Loyalty is ensured by your debt. Loyalty ensured by transaction of goods and services.
Why do you need to be assertive to keep you office intact in tribal societies?
Because leadership positions can be challenged. You need to continue to acquire resources so you have them to share and to fend off the competition.
How does social control and conflict resolution function in tribes?
- Aims at mediation and/or resolution
- Aims at mediation and/or compensation
-Emphasizes re-incorporation of offenders into community
What are the tribes mechanisms to deal with social control and conflict resolution?
- withdrawal of cooperation
- believe that antisocial actions caused disease
How do The Nuer deal with social control and conflict resolution?
- emphasis on mediation
- Leopard Skin chief acted as go-between
True or False: Leaders in tribal societies are participating in economic activities. they don't stand out in terms of what they own and they are not removed from manual labour.
Why do leaders acquire and pursue wealth in tribal societies?
In order to reinvest it
What are chiefdoms associated with? Why?
Associated with horticulturalists and pastoralists
-Where resources are plentiful
-Regional specialization is pronounced
What are th population of chiefdoms?
Population between several thousands to 30 00
How are chiefdoms typically redistributive systems?
- chief has control over surplus goods
- and at times, over community labour force
Where are chiefdoms commonly found today?
In modern times, this polity primarily concentrated in Oceania and in some parts of the Americans
What did the following result in:
Further settlement into more intensive agricultural like contexts, rooting and investing themselves in the land, continuous investment of resources into the land, arises the need of diversification of labour, social relations, and economic diversification as well.
What is the difference between clans and lineages?
Difference between clan and lineage is that lineages are a few generations who have a known ancestor that actually existed and clans are more generations who trace back to an individual who may o may not have existed.
How is power received in centralized systems, particularly chiefdoms?
Power is inherited
Who do chiefs receive commissions?
From taxes they collect, workers they supply, etc.
Who is "the head of a ranked hierarchy of people" in a Chiefdom?
What is the office of the chief?
Is usually for life and often hereditary
Describe the authority of the chief.
Serves to unite his people in all affairs and at all times.
Why is the office of the chief highly unstable?
As lesser chiefs try to take power from higher ranking chiefs.
True or False: Internal violence within chiefdoms is lower than in tribes.
How is social order maintained in Chiefdoms?
Social order maintained through fear, respect for, and loyalty to the chief.
What is a chief's loyalty backed by?
Chief's authority is backed by symbolic and supernatural, administrative, economic, and military power.
Who is in possession of resources and is the ruling authority in a chiefdom?
Describe the relationship between the chiefs and his subordinates?
Do not need to reach out and oil the relationship with the subordinates; the subordinates need to reach out to the chief.
True or False: the chief is spared manual labour.
True or False: chiefs are members of the same labour force as everyone else. They do work.
False. Chiefs are not longer members of the same labour force as everyone else. They are not working at all.
What is the most formal of political organizations?
Describe political power in a state.
Political power is centralized in a government, which may use force to regulate the affairs of its citizens an its relations with other states.
When did states appear?
5000 years ago
What two things do states have a tendency towards?
instability and transience
What are the (at least) 3 categories of members in a state?
the ruling elite, bureaucracy, and populace
States practice class___.
From what did states emerge from?
What led to the need for states?
Correlation between your mode of production and your political organization...i.e. intensive agriculture made a surplus of food possible, making the need for states.
___states recognized by united nations in today's world
What is a nation states?
some states can be the political entity for one ethnicity or one culture (ex. japan, iceland)
How do Western bureaucratic transactions differ from Nigerian bureaucratic transactions?
In the west bureaucratic transactions are best when they are impersonal. In the Nigerian bureaucratic system, personal connections are emphasized. It is not about the bureaucracy self, it is who you know in the bureaucracy. You have to uno individuals and have access to the individuals through other individuals. Emphasis on actually personalizing these transactions. In the West we pride ourselves on being professional, not interfering with professional and personal. In Nigeria it is the opposite.
Presence of the___is important in the state as religion is the ideology that justifies one's presence in the office.
What are the 3 reasons why states arose
- cultural solution
- ecological adaption
- military expansion
What are the 2 dominant factors according to various anthropological theories that led to states?
- Conflict (Fried 1967)
- Integration (Service 1971)
States: expansion by___.
When was the Inca Empire founded?
early 13th century
When did the Inca Empire last until? What happened that led to its demise?
- Lasted until 1530s
- Spanish conquered it
Who was Sapa Inca? What did he control?
- The ruler of the Inca Empire, believed to be direct descendant of God.
- Controlled multiethnic populace of 6-12 million subjects
What was the Inca Empire created through?
The state created through conquest.
True or False: The Inca Empire had a taxation system.
True or False: The Inca Empire had wheeled transportation, writing system (no knots were used) , monetary exchange system.
- No wheeled transportation, no writing system (only knots were used), no monetary exchange system.
What is the main preoccupation of the elite in the state?
To maintain their power in the state
How do the elite in the state maintain their power?
- Through control of the apparatus of the state, particularly its institutions of coercion
- By establishing hegemony
What is hegemony according to Antonio Gramsci?
Elite development of ideologies, or patterns of belief, that attempt to justify the stratification system, making it part of the dominant cultural pattern and encoding it in law.
Describe the role of women when it comes to political leadership?
- Women are globally underrepresented in leadership roles.
True of False: In a number of societies, women have enjoyed equal equality with men.