Political Philosophy & Ethics Flashcards Preview

Microscope and the Elephant > Political Philosophy & Ethics > Flashcards

Flashcards in Political Philosophy & Ethics Deck (107):
1

Ethics

How things ought to be - justifying what is 'good' or 'bad'.

2

Heteronomous ethics

"Other rules" - something is 'good' or 'bad' because someone else says so.

3

Religious heteronomous ethics

Pointing to a holy book for the answer to what is right.

4

Secular heteronomous ethics

Pointing to someones elses theories to know what is right.

5

Autonomous ethics

"Self rules" - reasoning about why something is 'good' or 'bad'.

6

Utilitarianism

Calculating the best consequences of an action. determined solely by the welfare of individuals.

7

J. Bentham utilitarianism.

Pain vs. pleasure - the greatest happiness for the greatest number (doesn't consider minorities).

8

Mill utilitarianism

The hierarchy of pleasures (elitist) - using intellect to decide what comes first.

9

Singer utilitarianism

Preference utilitarianism - pain vs pleasure for individuals. Equal consideration of equal interests. Reducing suffering is more important than increasing happiness.

10

Kantianism / Deontology

To act in a morally right way, people myst act from duty and adhere to the rules. Not using anyone in an instrumental way.

11

Kants categorical imperitive / Golden rule

Don't do unto others what you wouldn't want done to you.

12

Virtue ethics

Virtues are fundamental (not rules or duties) and ethics are about good character.

13

Aristotle virtue ethics

If you have good virtue, then you will be good.

14

Egoism

One ought to always act in on's own best interests.

15

A. Rand egoism

The virtue of selfishness - if everyone is selfish, then we would all get along.

16

Nietzsin egoism

Slave mentality - everyone behaving as a slave is what keeps people from fulfilling their potential.

17

Ubermensch / untermensch (Nietzsin)

Ubermensch are people who are free to express themselves while untermensch are people who are kept down by the ubermensch.

18

Blackburn egoism

Enlightened egoism - helping others for your own benefit. Giving money to the poor brings you more safety and freedom.

19

Ethics of care / feminist virtue ethics

Caring for those who are dependent and vulnerable. Maintaining the world to meet the needs of ourselves and others.

20

Gilligan virtue ethics

Ethics of care are natural in personal rational situations.

21

Rights theory

Rights protect individuals from harm done by others.

22

Rights theory - rights are considered to be

1. God given, 2. part of the fabric of the universe, 3. the result of collective deliberation.

23

Social contract theory

Social deliberation on moral rules by rational human agents.

24

Moral agents - social contract theory

People who decide upon the rules.

25

Moral patients - social contract theory

People whose rights are decided upon for them.

26

United Nations Declaration of Human Rights

The first document in history to state that all humans are equal. Not necessarily implemented - not a treaty.

27

European Treaty of Human Rights (ETHR)

More powerful since it is a treaty.

28

Rawls - a theory of justice

Hypothetical version of the social contract theory putting yourself in place of the worst off in society.

29

Liberalism

Maximising individual liberty without harming others.

30

Mill - on liberty (1895)

"My liberty ends where yours begins" - no harm principle: everything goes as long as you do not harm others.

31

Paternalism

Opposite of liberalism - other people tell you what is good for you and what you have to do.

32

Relativism

The view that belief, knowledge, truth and morality exist in relation to culture, society and history and are not absolute.

33

Cultural relativism

The view that belief, customs and morality exist in relation to a particular culture from which they originate and are not absolute.

34

Epistemological relitivism

The view that knowledge is relative to time, place, society, culture, history and conceptual to personal conviction.

35

Universalism

Religion is a universal human quality due to universal principles of most religions.

36

Moral universalism

Some ethics apply universally, regardless of culture, race or perception.

37

Objectivism

Moral truths exist independently of human knowledge or perception of them.

38

Capabilities approach

Stimulating and facilitating capabilities (e.g. education), which lead to human flourishing.

39

Green liberalism

Do as you please, but without harming others, including non human animals and future generations - veganism as an obligation.

40

Singer view on euthanasia

If you are suffering more in life then death then it is ok. If it reduces overall suffering.

41

Singer view on abortion

Early abortion is a non-moral issue as the foetus isn't sentient. Handicapped babies - consideration of overall suffering.

42

Singer view on animal ethics

Animal rights are irrelevant since animals have an interest in avoidance of suffering not in continued existance. In favour of moral inclusion of animals.

43

Expanding the moral circle 1 - sentientism

1. Myself.
2. My friends and family.
3. Everyone in my country.
4. All living humans.
5. Future generations.
6. Non-human animals.

44

2. Expanding the circle to friends and family

Tribalism - the moral concern is only for the people in your tribe.

45

3. Expanding the circle to everyone in my country.

Kingdom - no fighting within the country.

46

4. All living humans

Human Rights Declaration (1971) - abolitionism (no moral hierarchy).

47

5. Future generations

Sustainable development in order to care for future generations.

48

6. Non-human animals

Animal liberations - veganism. Human rights are a subcategory of animal rights.

49

Moral blind spot

Aspects not included within the moral circle which we do not see.

50

Previous moral blind spots

Racism, sexism, ageism.

51

Current moral blind spots

Speciesism (not giving non-human animals a moral status) and presentism (discriminating against future generations).

52

Carnism

The invisible belief system, or ideology that conditions people to eat certain animals with the justifications.

53

Objectivism

Veiwing animals as things.

54

De-individualisation

Viewing animals as things.

55

Dichotomisation

Viewing animals in categories.

56

Expansion of the moral circle - Bentham

The driving question should be; can they suffer?

57

Driving forces of expanding the moral circle

Ability to be rational, project of enlightenment (striving for moral progress), descriptive or normative perspectives.

58

Expanding the moral circle 2 - going beyond sentientism

1. Anthopocentrism
2. Sentientism
3. Biocentrism
4. Ecocentrism
5. Gaia

59

1. Anthopocentrism

Only includes humans.

60

2. Sentientism

Including all beings that can suffer.

61

3. Biocentrism

Including all living things - incl. plants and bacteria. Respecting all nature.

62

4. Ecocentrism

Deep ecology - placing value on ecosystems consisting of biotic and abiotic aspects.

63

5. Gaia (Earth centrism)

Earth as an organism - metephorically as the Earth is 'sick' and its sickness is humans.

64

Eco-fascism

An extreme version of Gaia where the loss of humans would be good for the planet.

65

How do we know how much an animal can suffer?

Behaviour, neurology and evolution.

66

Behaviour

How does the animal respond to external stimuli?

67

Neurology

Is the nervous system centralised? Are there opioid receptors present in the brain?

68

Evolution

Is the capacity to suffer evolutionary advantageous to the animal? Do any of its close relatives have the capacity to suffer?

69

Despotism

Short-term ego-istic self interest which denies all problems (e.g. environmental problems). Belief in the endless flow of resources.

70

Enlightened despotism

Belief tha technology will fix all problems.

71

Religious stewardship

Taking care of the Earth for God (instrumental)

72

Secular stewardship

Taking care of the planet for future generations (instrumental)

73

Stewardship beyong anthropocentrism

Believing in the intrinsic value of nature without humans.

74

Partner

Being an equal partner with nature and conserving it - using nature but also recognising its intrinsic value.

75

Participant

Deep ecology- having the lowest possible harmful impact on the planet and preserving nature (allowing it to exist).

76

Unio Mystica

Selfless harmony with nature - human needs are less important than that of nature.

77

Eco-humanism

Based on the principles of the rationality axiom and no unecessary suffering.

78

Rationality axiom

For any statement you make, you have to hold rational arguments to support your claim.

79

No unecessary suffering includes:

Atheism, scepticism, humanism, liberalism, veganism, sustainable development, feminism and scientific naturalism.

80

Atheism

Without this you cannot rationally justify - religion is an institutionalised version of paranormal claims.

81

Scepticism

Not believing in unscientific claims.

82

Humanism

Promoting individual claims

83

Liberalism

Individualism and the no harm principle.

84

The 4 ethical relations

1. Humans - God.
2. Humans - humans
3. Humans - non-human animals
4. Humans - nature

85

Humans - God

Bulk of historical philosophy is preoccupied with metaphysics, theology and the supernatural.

86

Humans - humans

Anthropocentric focus of most philosophy.

87

Humans - non-human animals

Expanding the moral circle of philosophical reflection by applying ethics also to non-human animals.

88

Humans - nature

The latest expansion of the moral circle for applied ethics, focusing on nature, environmental problems and future generations.

89

Equation of stupid

People x average ecological footprint < carrying capacity.

90

Carrying capacity of the Earth

Our combined ecological footprint must be smaller than the carrying capacity of the Earth.

91

Current sustainability

You cannot have finite growth in an infinite system. We do not see it, but we know its coming - as humans we only act upon aspects that we can see and feel.

92

Pollution

Contaminents in the natural environment that causes instability, disorder and harm to the ecosystem.

93

Desertification

Desert areas around the world are expanding due to overgrazing, deforestation, poor agricultural practices and climate change.

94

Biodiversity loss

Extinctions occurring at rates hundreds of times higher than before.

95

Depletion of resources

Unsustainable usage of natural resources.

96

Overfishing

Ultimatley leads to resource depletion. Overfishing of sharks has led to the upset of entire marine ecosystems.

97

Overpopulation

Continuous rapid population growth exceeds the carrying capacity of the planet.

98

Climate change

Rising of GHGs leads to global warming and climate change - threatening the life support systems of present and future generations.

99

Ocean acidification

Ongoing increase of acidity of the Earth's oceans.CO2 goes into the oceans where it forms carbonic acid posing a threat to food chains.

100

Deforestation

Destruction of primary forests by clear-cutting, which leads to desertification, soil ersion and biodiversity loss.

101

Things that decrease our harm impact

Vegaism, simplicity, low carbon living, less children, solar houses, transition towns.

102

Things that increase our harm impact

Consumerism, animal production and economic growth.

103

Karl Popper

The Open Society and its Enemies - closed and open societies

104

Open society

liberal societies with core values of freedom and expression.

105

Closed societies

Totalitarian societies which lead to Nazism and communism with no room for individual liberty.

106

Negative freedom

A freedom not to be interferred with (no harm).

107

Positive freedom

Facilitates doing something with your freedom (e.g. an education system).