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Flashcards in Politics Deck (14):
1

What does political anthropology look at

how groups of people make decisions, solve problems and maintain social order

2

What is a political economy

- leadership, authority, power in production, distribution and consumption of goods/services

3

How does Barker distinguish politics:

○ political realm: decision making, leadership
○ Legal realm: maintaining social order and control, strategies for dealing with disputes
- Norm bound vs law bound systems

4

What is Political organization?

-etic framework
- Institutions within societies related to decision making, leadership and social control

5

Who is Elman Service

(1950-1996)
○ Etic framework, not an evolutionary scheme
- Bands, Tribes, Chiefdoms, States

6

What is Theoretical Orientation?

1) Functionalism:
- Inward focus
- Norms, laws, rituals (make decisions and deal with conflict)
- Malinowski/Radcliffe Brown
- *focus on group function

2) Processualism:
- Focus on process and action
- How rules are enforced and who does it
Focus on individual process and leaders

7

What are Bands?

- Foragers (old system of politics)
- Ex: Iskaut villiage about 100 years ago
- Small groups of people, households and extended families (20-100 people)
- Related kin, focus on sharing what you have and getting along with neighbours
- Political life and everyday life= same
- No permanent leadership position
- Leadership that is achieved
- Informal leadership, no permanent leaders it must be achieved due to influence and situation. Achieve desired result by exerting social pressure

8

What are Tribes?

- Pastoral and horticulturalists
- 12000 years old (several 100- few 1000), when small surplus of wealth and control of land
- Groups of bands
• Shared language, culture, territory,
- Come together and split at different times of year, matrilineal and patrilineal societies
- Reciprocity, redistribution events (Moka, potlatch)
- Kawalka (Onkas group), Maisin, Tahltan
- Leadership
• head of family/tribe which is more formal than bands but achieve the position through skill, experience, knowledge, achievements and ascribed leadership (hereditary born with it)
• work to resolve conflict, resource management (rotation of crops/fields, grazing lands), have influence and authority
• Consensus, personal (tied to individual and their charisma)

9

What is Cheifdom

- centralized leadership with power under a "chief", specialized political role
- Larger population several to ten thousand,
- Social specialization and differences
- Chief is an ascribed position, leader who has force, influence and authority. Decisions can be enforced
- Associated with resource management, external conflict, exercise power (can take action in face of resistance)
Ex: potlaching peoples, Nuxalk?,

10

Compare Big Man vs Chief

Big Man:
- political egalitarianism
- Achieved
- Influence, authority
- Earn and maintain a loyalty
- Calculated generosity
- All people have potential to have a say in decisions
*redistribution exchanges (Moka)

Chief:
- Office and title
- Comes with power, not earned. People expected to follow rules or face consequences
- Achieved but ascription is key
- Loyalty is owed
- Obligated to be generous
- Small groups make most decisions
- *redistribution exchanges (Potlatch)

11

How does the Canadian government and anthropologists classify governments differently?

Canadian government classify lots of groups as bands but as anthropologists are classified into chiefdoms, bands, and tribes

12

What is a nation

group of people with shared language, culture, territory, heritage

13

What are Norms?

- Agreed upon standard of behaviour within a group
- Unwritten and unconscious, tend to learn through violation (often as a child)
- used in all societies
- shame when defied
-

14

What are Laws?

- agriculture and industrial society
- binding rules
-enforced legitimate use of power
- enforced through guilt and innocence
- institutions and processes to decide guilt or innocence
ordeals (painful tests, bege poison to determine guilt/innocence)