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Flashcards in Polymers Deck (58):
1

This can be an energy source OR storage.

Glucose

2

In an alpha 1-4 linkage...

Carbon stays up

3

In a beta 1-4 linkage...

Carbon flips up & down

4

1-4 glycosidic linkages form this storage carbohydrate...

Starch!

5

Humans use this in place of starch to store energy between meals, consisting of 1-6 linkages.

Glycogen

6

These are used for maintaining structure of cell walls in plants among other things.

Structural Carbohydrates (Cellulose)

7

Cellulose is made up of...

Linear chains with b1-4 linkages

8

Why can't humans use cellulose?

Can't hydrolyze the beta linkages

9

What does cellulose do for humans?

As insoluble fiber, prevents a constipe.

10

Structural carbohydrates for plants, fungi & bacteria?

Cellulose - Plants
Chitin - Fungi
Peptidoglycan - Bacteia

11

Modified glucose used by fungi.

Chitin

12

Chitin is made up of long chains of ___ monomers.

NAG - beta linkage & hydrogen bonds between

13

The only difference between chitin & cellulose is:

Addition of side chains

14

T/F Fungi are more related to animals than plants.

TRUE

15

Glucose with NAG & NAM (N-acetyl-mureinic acid)

Peptidoglycan

16

Similar to NAG in chitin, however this big difference:

Every second monomer has short peptide chain attached. (NAG/NAM/NAG/NAM)

17

One glycerol & three fatty acids =

Triglyceride

18

The difference in hardness & fluidity of triglycerides lies in...

The Fatty Acid Tails

19

When there are no double bonds the fatty acid is said to be:

Saturated
Hard/Solid Tight

20

When there are one or more "cis" double bonds:

Unsaturated
Loosey goosey, kinky

21

Humans store fats as:

Triglycerides

22

These have only 2 fatty acid chains

Phospholipids

23

Amiphiphatic means:

Dual natured. Polar & non-polar regian.
Head=Polar
Tail=NonPolar

24

How did phospholipids form the first membranes?

Clicky! Lined up creating lipid bilayer or micelles.

25

These make up more than 50% of biomass.

Proteins!

26

Proteins have 2 main functions:

Enzymes
Support

27

Amino acids are polar or nonpolar.

Nonpolar

28

NO O
No Charge
Hydrophobic

Nonpolar R Group

29

YES O
No Charge
Hydrophillic

Polar

30

YES O
Negative Charge

Acidic
Hydrophillic

31

NO O
POSITIVE CHARGE

Basic
Hydrophillic

32

At this level we have a sequence of amino acids & peptide bonds.

Primary Structure

33

Here we have a backbone of H bonds which form between _______ & ________ and ______ & _______.

Secondary Structure
Amino & Hydrogen
Carboxyl & Oxygen

34

The H Bonds produce shapes known as:

Helices

35

A few H bonds down, the polypeptide chains will spiral and link into a....

ALPHA HELIX

36

If we have H bonds between carboxyl & amino groups?

b Pleated Sheets

37

Here we see 3D shapes as a result of...

Tertiary Structure
Interactions between sidechains

38

H Bonds in tertiary...

Between POLAR side chains

39

Ionic bonds in tertiary...

Between +&- side chains

40

Disulfide bridges in tertieary...

Between 2 sulfhydryl groups

41

Van der Waals interactions in tertiary...

Between nonpolar amino acid side chains.

42

If not finished at tertiary, moves to:

Quaternary - association of seperate peptides giving them function.

43

Breaking of chemical bonds with the Primary or Secondary structure. (which bonds)

Protein Denaturation
H-Ionic-Disulfide

44

Denaturation happens as a result of (3)

Changes in pH (I)
Salts (I)
Excessiev heat (H&D)

45

Changes to pH can cause hydrophillic & hydrophobic ends to:

Swap placesl

46

Proteins crucial to the folding process are called:

Chaperonins

47

The combination of DNA and proteins that make up the contents of the nucleus of a cell.

Chromatin

48

Nitrogenous bases are either:

Pyrimidine - CUT
Purine - GA

49

5 Carbon sugars are either:

Deoxyribose or (NO O on 2'carbon)
Ribose (O on 2' carbon)

50

These attach to 5' carbon on sugar.

Phosphate Group

51

Nucleic acids have a ______-________ backbone.

Sugar-phosphate

52

If no phosphate we call a...

Nucleoside

53

If we have sugar, phosphate and nitrogenous base

Nucloetide

54

Phosphates link in this order:

5'3'5'3'5'3'

55

DNA structure is simply:

2 Polynucloetide strands. 2 Parallell lines running in opposite directions.

56

For nitrogenous bases, these two always bond:

One purine
One pyrmidine

57

WE GO TOGETHER!!!

Adenine & Thymine
Guanine & Cytosine

58

Chagraffs Law:

%A=%T
%C=%G