Flashcards in Polymers Deck (58):
This can be an energy source OR storage.
In an alpha 1-4 linkage...
Carbon stays up
In a beta 1-4 linkage...
Carbon flips up & down
1-4 glycosidic linkages form this storage carbohydrate...
Humans use this in place of starch to store energy between meals, consisting of 1-6 linkages.
These are used for maintaining structure of cell walls in plants among other things.
Structural Carbohydrates (Cellulose)
Cellulose is made up of...
Linear chains with b1-4 linkages
Why can't humans use cellulose?
Can't hydrolyze the beta linkages
What does cellulose do for humans?
As insoluble fiber, prevents a constipe.
Structural carbohydrates for plants, fungi & bacteria?
Cellulose - Plants
Chitin - Fungi
Peptidoglycan - Bacteia
Modified glucose used by fungi.
Chitin is made up of long chains of ___ monomers.
NAG - beta linkage & hydrogen bonds between
The only difference between chitin & cellulose is:
Addition of side chains
T/F Fungi are more related to animals than plants.
Glucose with NAG & NAM (N-acetyl-mureinic acid)
Similar to NAG in chitin, however this big difference:
Every second monomer has short peptide chain attached. (NAG/NAM/NAG/NAM)
One glycerol & three fatty acids =
The difference in hardness & fluidity of triglycerides lies in...
The Fatty Acid Tails
When there are no double bonds the fatty acid is said to be:
When there are one or more "cis" double bonds:
Loosey goosey, kinky
Humans store fats as:
These have only 2 fatty acid chains
Dual natured. Polar & non-polar regian.
How did phospholipids form the first membranes?
Clicky! Lined up creating lipid bilayer or micelles.
These make up more than 50% of biomass.
Proteins have 2 main functions:
Amino acids are polar or nonpolar.
Nonpolar R Group
At this level we have a sequence of amino acids & peptide bonds.
Here we have a backbone of H bonds which form between _______ & ________ and ______ & _______.
Amino & Hydrogen
Carboxyl & Oxygen
The H Bonds produce shapes known as:
A few H bonds down, the polypeptide chains will spiral and link into a....
If we have H bonds between carboxyl & amino groups?
b Pleated Sheets
Here we see 3D shapes as a result of...
Interactions between sidechains
H Bonds in tertiary...
Between POLAR side chains
Ionic bonds in tertiary...
Between +&- side chains
Disulfide bridges in tertieary...
Between 2 sulfhydryl groups
Van der Waals interactions in tertiary...
Between nonpolar amino acid side chains.
If not finished at tertiary, moves to:
Quaternary - association of seperate peptides giving them function.
Breaking of chemical bonds with the Primary or Secondary structure. (which bonds)
Denaturation happens as a result of (3)
Changes in pH (I)
Excessiev heat (H&D)
Changes to pH can cause hydrophillic & hydrophobic ends to:
Proteins crucial to the folding process are called:
The combination of DNA and proteins that make up the contents of the nucleus of a cell.
Nitrogenous bases are either:
Pyrimidine - CUT
Purine - GA
5 Carbon sugars are either:
Deoxyribose or (NO O on 2'carbon)
Ribose (O on 2' carbon)
These attach to 5' carbon on sugar.
Nucleic acids have a ______-________ backbone.
If no phosphate we call a...
If we have sugar, phosphate and nitrogenous base
Phosphates link in this order:
DNA structure is simply:
2 Polynucloetide strands. 2 Parallell lines running in opposite directions.
For nitrogenous bases, these two always bond:
WE GO TOGETHER!!!
Adenine & Thymine
Guanine & Cytosine