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Flashcards in Population Deck (29):

Densely populated countries

Bangladesh- rich alluvial soil, can be used in agriculture
Germany-large coalfields history of employment, job opportunities


Sparsely populated countries

Amazon Basin- dense vegetation, making building and access very difficult
Sahara Desert- too dry, not enough moisture to grow successful crops
Himalayas- land too steep, cannot be built upon, farming very difficult
Greenland- frozen soil, cannot grow crops


Population Pyramid features

Wide top- ageing population
- high life expectancy
Convex sides- ageing population
- high life expectancy
Wide base- youthful population
- high birth rate
Concave sides - low life expectancy
- high birth rate


Anti-natalist policy- China (1979) incentives

Better child care
Free education
Preferential housing programmes
Longer maternity leave


Anti-natalist policy- China (1979) disincentives

Fined up to 15% of annual income
3rd child's parents penalised with a 10% reduction in wages
All privileges removed, parents could be sacked from the jobs


Pro-natalist policy- Singapore (1987) incentives

5 days per year paid child care leave
3 month maternity leave
Couples who have more children are entitled to $95 for a maid if the child is under 12
Entitled to upgrade to a bigger flat


Pro-natalist policy- Singapore (1987) disincentives

Women with less than 3 children cannot undergo sterilisation without counselling
Couples with less than 3 children cannot own a flat larger than 3 rooms


Population distribution of UK

Unevenly distributed
More people living in the south (1000+ living in London per sq km)
Sparsely populated in north (


Causes of ageing population in UK

Life expectancy 80.4 years, high life expectancy due to better medical facilities etc
UK birth rate declining as women are choosing careers over families etc


Causes of the decreasing fertility rate in UK

Women choosing career over families- lower birth rate
Contraception- more widely available, easier to prevent pregnancy
Cost- children cost money rather than make money


Positive consequences of ageing population in UK

Growth in SKI holidays, benefit many tourist destinations, particularly those of LICs
In East Devon the crime rate is half of that of the rest of the UK (23.5 per 1000)
Many have more time to make a positive contribution to society eg in East Devon many join the council for voluntary services
Baby boomers own 70% of the wealth, in 20 years time they will own 85-90% of the wealth


Negative consequences of ageing population in UK

People over the age of 75 least likely to own a car, puts a strain on public transport
Increases the number of single person's household, may increase the demand of housing
Cost of reisidential care has increased (£2000 per month), meaning many have to sell their homes to finance the cost


Possible solutions

Raise age of retirement
Taxes should be raised for the working population


Reasons behind changes in population

Contraception- smaller families
Longer life expectancy
Children no longer needed to work on farms, now cost parents money rather than make it
Better access to medical facilities, better medical care


Population distribution in China

Unevenly distributed
West more sparsely populated than East
Tibet (North Western China) sparsely populated,


Reasons for population distribution in UK-human

More coalfields available, more densely populated, higher employment rate, more jobs provided for locals (in Newcastle 600+ per sq km)
Easier access, more densely populated, easier transport links via trams, trains etc ( in London 1000+ per sq km)


Reasons for population distribution in UK- physical

Lower average rainfall, more densely populated the area, decreased risk of floods
Higher the average temperature, more densely populated the area, crops better suited to warmer conditions, increased yield


Reasons for population distribution in China- physical

Higher the average rainfall annually, more densely populated the area, either moisture is needed for crops or other factors outweigh this factor
Too high temperatures, sparse population (


Reasons for population distribution in China- human

Areas situated on the coast more densely populated, makes imports and exports easier for trade eg Beijing


Demographic transition model

Stage 1- birth rate high
- death rate high
- eg Swaziland
Stage 2- birth rate high
- death rate declining due to better sanitation
- eg Yemen, Uganda
Stage 3- birth rate declining due to access to contraception
- low death rate
- eg Chili
Stage 4- low death rate due to high life expectancy
- low birth rate
- eg UK
Stage 5- low birth rate
- low death rate
- eg Japan


Limitations of DTM

Extension to the model added, needs to be changed
Not all countries will go through all stages, based on Western Europe
May not be representative of a whole country
Events eg war may disrupt a countries population


Causes of youthful population- The Gambia

Contraception discouraged- 96% inhabitants Muslim
Women do not get a say as to how many children they have
Sex not discussed, meaning there is a lack of knowledge regarding pregnancy and how it can be developed


Effects of youthful population -The Gambia

Increased use of fuel wood, due to deforestation 75% forests gone
Strain upon education system, teachers have to work 12 hour shifts, in Sekunda school 3000 students share 26 classrooms with only 6 toilets
Infrastructure cannot keep up, dependent non-workers are a strain upon the economy, meaning infrastructure cannot keep up, in Banjul holes are used rather than toilets


Population distribution of the world

Extreme northern latitudes sparsely populated eg Greenland
Edges of continents eg Africa densely populated
Coastal areas densely populated
Europe, in particular Western Europe, densely populated


Ageing population

Large percentage of people over the age of 65 (known as elderly dependents)


Youthful population

Large percentage of people under the age of 16 (known as youthful dependents)


Population density

A measure of the number of people living in an area, usually per 1 sq km


Fertility rate

The average number of children a women may be expected to have by age


Infant mortality

The death of a child under the age of 1