Beginning in the 1890s and continuing until 1915, ______, composed by musicians such as Scott Joplin, proved increasingly popular, blending strict two-four time and the melody in a steady syncopation.
Ragtime music began in black neighborhoods in St. Louis and New Orleans before catching on with audiences nationwide. Ragtime blended European classical music with the syncopation utilized by black musicians. Ragtime influenced many of the earliest jazz musicians, such as Louis Armstrong.
Who was the most popular bandleader of the early 20th century?
John Philip Sousa
Sousa specialized in patriotic marches and led his brass band in parades and concerts. His most famous march, Stars and Stripes Forever, continues to be popular today.
Who were the Gold Bugs?
In the 1896 election, the Gold Bugs marked those Democrats who were loyal to President Cleveland and who supported the gold standard (as opposed to silver coinage). The issue of free silver split the Democratic Party, which nominated free silver advocate William Jennings Bryan.
Most Gold Bugs supported Bryan's opponent, Republican William McKinley, or joined the short-lived rump party, the National Democrats.
How did William Jennings Bryan secure the 1896 Democrat nomination for President?
Bryan endorsed free silver in his famous "Cross of Gold" speech. Bryan said:
"We will answer their demands for a gold standard by saying to them: ‘You shall not press down upon the brow of labor this crown of thorns, you shall not crucify mankind upon a cross of gold.’”
Who did the Populist Party support in the 1896 presidential election?
William Jennings Bryan
By adopting a free silver platform, Bryan and the Democrats had appropriated the Populists' main electoral issue, and in response the Populists also nominated Bryan. Their failure to nominate a different candidate led to their demise as a party.
How did William Jennings Bryan revolutionize presidential campaigns during the 1896 election?
Bryan actively campaigned for the Presidency, ending a long tradition of candidates staying quietly at home and letting surrogates make their case for them.
William McKinley, Bryan's Republican opponent, remained on his front porch, entertaining visitors and providing lemonade.
Although the 1896 Republican nominee William McKinley stayed quietly on his front porch and entertained visitors, his campaign manager, Mark Hanna, revolutionized political campaigning. How?
Hanna sought campaign funds from wealthy donors, and used those funds to purchase favorable space in newspapers and magazines.
McKinley's opponent, William Jennings Bryan, revolutionized politics in his own way by conducting the first direct campaign by a candidate for President.
What was the effect on the Democratic Party of William McKinley's resounding victory in the 1896 presidential election?
William McKinley crushed William Jennings Bryan in one of the most lopsided presidential elections in history. The result relegated the Democratic Party to a regional political party, drawing strong support only in the South. Six of the next seven Presidents would come from the Republican Party.
In 1897, early in President McKinley's first term, gold was discovered in _____, bringing the U.S. out of the depression which followed the Panic of 1893.
The Alaskan Gold Strike also increased the amount of gold in circulation, lessening the appeal of candidates who supported silver coinage.
What was the first newspaper to reach 1,000,000 in circulation?
The New York World, published by Joseph Pulitzer, reached the 1,000,000 mark in the 1890s. Unlike the more staid papers of the day, Pulitzer's World emphasized sensationalism with lurid tales of love gone wrong, murder, and corruption in high places.
Who led the New York Journal, a rival to Pulitzer's New York World?
William Randolph Hearst
Hearst and Pulitzer engaged in a newspaper war fighting for subscribers with ever-escalating sensationalism. Critics dubbed their conduct "yellow journalism."
The term "yellow journalism" stems from the Yellow Kid comic strip, which was published in both the Journal and the World.
In 1895, José Martí, with arms and ammunition smuggled in from the United States, began a revolution against the Spanish government in _____.
Both Hearst's Journal and Pulitzer's World covered Martí's revolution and atrocities committed by the Spanish government in suppressing it, such as the decision to concentrate suspected revolutionaries in camps. Both newspapers urged American intervention.
Jingoism is a belligerent nationalist foreign policy. The term was used in the 1890s to describe those who supported continued American expansion, by diplomatic means if possible, but by war if necessary.
The term is often associated with Teddy Roosevelt, who was quoted in 1895, "If by 'jingoism' they mean a policy in pursuance of which Americans will with resolution and common sense insist upon our rights being respected by foreign powers, then we are 'jingoes.'"
What was the De Lôme Letter?
De Lôme was the Spanish Ambassador to the United States. In February 1898 (a few weeks before the Maine sank in Havana), a letter written by De Lôme to his government, which insulted President McKinley, was leaked and published in The New York Journal.
The letter, which described McKinley as "weak and catering to the rabble," outraged Americans.
In 1898, the sinking of the _____ in Havana Harbor provided the excuse for an American declaration of war on Spain.
One of America's new battleships, the Maine exploded on the night of February 15, 1898. Although probably the result of an accident, the sinking provided a pretext for war.
A popular Spanish-American War recruiting slogan was "Remember the Maine, and to hell with Spain."
Before requesting Congress declare war in 1898, President McKinley issued an ultimatum to Spain, demanding that Spain cease hostilities against the Cuban revolutionaries. How did Spain respond?
Spain agreed, but under domestic pressure President McKinley asked Congress for a declaration of war anyway. The Spanish-American War was officially declared on April 20, 1898.
What was the Teller Amendment?
Affixed to the American declaration of war against Spain in 1898, the Teller Amendment declared that after the war, Cuba would be granted self-government. For the Cubans at least, the Spanish-American War would be a war of liberation, not of conquest.
Who led the American naval attack on the Spanish forces at Manila Bay?
Commodore George Dewey
Manila was the capital of the Philippines, Spain's sole remaining Asian possession of importance. On May 1st, 1898, Dewey's fleet defeated Spanish naval forces in a one-sided battle, sinking 11 Spanish ships.
Dewey suffered a single fatality, Chief Engineer Francis B. Randall of the McCulloch, who suffered a heart attack.
Following the declaration of war against Spain, Assistant Secretary of the Navy Theodore Roosevelt resigned and formed his own cavalry unit. What nickname was applied to Roosevelt's unit?
Officially called the 1st United States Volunteer Calvary Regiment, the unit was known as the Rough Riders. Roosevelt recruited cowboys, miners, hunters, gamblers, Indians, and football players from Harvard and Yale.
What was the most famous battle of the Spanish-American War?
On July 1, 1898, Teddy Roosevelt's Rough Riders launched a successful attack against Spanish forces on San Juan Hill. Roosevelt's efforts were aided in large part by the black soldiers of the 24th and 25th Infantry. Roosevelt received much of the credit, and became a celebrity.
On July 3, 1898, American naval forces crushed the Spanish Navy at _____ _____ _____, the largest naval battle of the Spanish-American War.
Santiago de Cuba
The battle decimated the Spanish naval forces, cutting off Cuba from Spanish reinforcements. On August 12, 1898, Spain sued for peace. The war had lasted only four months.
What were the terms of the Treaty of Paris (1898), ending the Spanish-American War?
Under the Treaty of Paris, the United States gained the Spanish possessions of Guam, Puerto Rico, and the Philippines, for which the United States paid $20 million.
Cuba, where most of the fighting had taken place, was placed under the jurisdiction of the United States military, and achieved independence in 1902, albeit with significant limitations on its foreign policy.
The United States suffered some 5,500 fatalities during the Spanish-American War. What was the leading cause of death?
Only about 500 American servicemen lost their lives due to enemy combat, while some 5,000 died due to disease; primarily malaria, yellow fever, and dysentery.
Dr. Walter Reed, a U.S. Army physician, investigated yellow fever. He determined that it was transmitted by a particular mosquito species, rather than by direct contact. Reed's research formed the foundation of the new field of epidemiology.
Stationed in San Francisco in February, 1898, the USS Oregon sailed around South America in time to participate in the Battle of Santiago de Cuba, some two months later. What was the effect of this lengthy journey?
The Oregon's two-month trip provided convincing evidence of the need for the Panama Canal; in the event of war with a major European power the United States would be able to ill afford the lengthy journey required to shift ships from the Pacific to the Atlantic.
In 1900, _____'s request for annexation was officially granted by the U.S. Congress.
American settlers overthrew the Hawaiian monarchy in 1893, but their request for annexation had been rebuffed by President Cleveland and the Democrats. The Spanish-American War provided a pretext to reconsider annexation, and the island became a U.S. territory.
Imperialism is a policy of extending a country's power, territory, or influence by diplomacy, force, or a combination of both.
By contrast, an anti-imperialist opposes such an extension.
What political group opposed continued U.S. imperialism in the early 20th century?
the Anti-Imperialist League
Guided by William Jennings Bryan, the Anti-Imperialist League opposed the U.S. annexation of the Philippines in the aftermath of the Spanish-American War. The League contended that annexation was against the wishes of the Filipinos, and thus contrary to the American principle of the "consent of the governed."
The Treaty of Paris (1898), ending the Spanish-American War, provided for American annexation of the Philippines. How did Filipinos respond?
Filipinos were outraged, having expected independence. Emilio Aguinaldo, a Filipino nationalist, led a guerrilla movement against American forces. The Philippine Insurrection resulted in thousands of casualties.
The Philippines would finally be granted independence in 1946.
What were the Insular Cases (1901)?
The Insular Cases arose out of the question of whether the U.S. Constitution would apply in full in the territory acquired from Spain. Despite the urging of the Anti-Imperialists, the Court held that the Constitution did not follow the flag. Rather the territories only received those rights granted to them by the Congress.
What was the Platt Amendment (1902)?
After the Spanish-American War, the Platt Amendment conditioned the withdrawal of American forces and Cuban independence on Cuba's agreement to allow American supervision over her foreign policy.
In addition, the Cuban-American Treaty (1903) allowed the U.S to maintain a United States naval base at Guantánamo Bay.
What was the Open Door Policy?
In 1899, Secretary of State John Hay sent a note to those nations holding "spheres of influence" (territorial grants from China). Hay requested a formal guarantee of Chinese territorial integrity and free use of ports within China for trade, an "open door" for all nations. Hay's diplomacy marked America's arrival as a first-class power, on par with the European nations.
One of the "spheres of influence" was Hong Kong, which remained under British control until 1999.
How did the United States respond to the Boxer Rebellion?
In 1900, the United States joined seven other nations in sending troops to protect foreign embassies in Peking from attack by Chinese nationalists known as the Boxers. In addition to the Open Door Policy, the United States' response signified a more active U.S. foreign policy, and greater involvement in Asian affairs.
Westerners called the Chinese nationalists Boxers due to the martial arts and calisthenics they practiced.
During the 1900 presidential election, the Democratic Party nominated William Jennings Bryan for a second time, and were a second time unsuccessful. What issues formed the core of Bryan's campaign?
Bryan trotted out his familiar trope of free silver, and also campaigned against imperialism. Neither proved popular, as the Klondike gold discovery in Alaska had allowed the government to issue more gold-backed dollars, and much of the populace was proud that America had demonstrated itself a first-class power with a strong navy in its war with Spain.
In addition, McKinley's Vice Presidential choice of popular war hero Teddy Roosevelt proved popular, and McKinley won a resounding victory.
After President McKinley was assassinated in 1901, Theodore Roosevelt became President. What phrase summarized Roosevelt's foreign policy?
"Walk softly, and carry a big stick."
The "walk softly" referred to the idea of peaceful negotiations, while the "big stick" referred to the use of the military. Examples of what became known as "Big Stick" diplomacy included the right to build a canal in Panama, and the Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine.
How did President Theodore Roosevelt respond to Colombia's refusal to allow the United States to build a canal across the Panamanian isthmus in 1903?
Roosevelt ordered the Navy to blockade the Colombian coast, and recognized a band Columbian rebels as the newly independent nation of Panama. A treaty was then negotiated between the new nation and the United States, which gave America the right to build the Panama Canal.
What was the Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine?
During the late 19th century, countries that defaulted on debts to European creditors were often occupied by the creditors' governments. In his Corollary, Roosevelt announced that European nations would not be allowed to occupy Western countries, but that the United States would occupy those countries' major ports until the debts were repaid.
Under the Roosevelt Corollary, the United States occupied ports in Cuba, Nicaragua, Haiti, and the Dominican Republic.
What was the Great White Fleet?
In 1907, President Roosevelt sent two squadrons of American naval vessels on a tour around the world, to demonstrate America's growing naval power.
During peacetime, America's steel ships were typically painted white, hence the name "Great White Fleet."
Theodore Roosevelt became the first U.S. President to win the Nobel Peace Prize for his efforts in resolving what conflict?
The Russo-Japanese War of 1904-1905
Roosevelt served as an independent arbitrator, helping the two sides achieve peace at Portsmouth, New Hampshire.
Three other Presidents have won the Prize; Woodrow Wilson, Jimmy Carter, and Barack Obama.
What was the Ashcan School?
During the early 20th century, the Ashcan School was a group of painters that specialized in painting gritty pictures of urban life. As part of the Realist art movement, the Ashcan School rebelled against Impressionism and sought to convey through art the plight of the urban poor.
Although he designed several buildings, Frederick Law Olmsted is best known for his contributions to what field of architecture?
Active until his death in 1903, Olmsted is remembered today for his efforts in landscape architecture. Olmsted believed that access to parks should be granted to all citizens (a revolutionary idea) and designed the layout of Central Park in Manhattan, Prospect Park in Brooklyn, and Chicago's riverside parks.
Pragmatism is a philosophical belief that absolute truth doesn't exist, but rather that truth is changeable. Pragmatists such as John Dewey and William James contended that by experimentation, unfixed ideas and laws could be changed to provide for an improved ordering of society.
During the Progressive Era, pragmatism proved attractive to reformers, who sought to challenge notions that stood in the way of reform and societal advancement, such as laissez-faire economic theories and rugged individualism.
Who were the muckrakers?
Active in the early years of the 20th century, the muckrakers were a group of journalists and authors who exposed corruption in business and government.
Popular muckrakers included Ida Tarbell, who attacked the Standard Oil Company, and Lincoln Steffens, who targeted corruption in St. Louis, Philadelphia, and Milwaukee.
What did Upton Sinclair describe in The Jungle?
Sinclair's novel described the travails of Jurgis Rudkus, who worked in Chicago's Meatpacking District. Sinclair's description of unsanitary conditions led to the passage of the Pure Food and Drug Act (1906) and the Meat Inspection Act (1906), the first laws empowering the government to protect the public from adulterated food.
What is the Australian Ballot?
First popularized in Australia, the Australian Ballot received widespread adoption in the early 1900s. Under the Australian Ballot, a vote is cast in private.
As part of the Progressive Movement, the use of the Australian Ballot marked a significant reform as a means of preventing voter intimidation.
What did the Seventeenth Amendment establish?
As part of the reforms of the Progressive Era, the Seventeenth Amendment established the direct election of Senators, and was passed in 1913.
Prior to its passage, Senators were nominated by state legislatures, which Progressives (and the Populists before them) believed was a process influenced by corruption.
In the legislative process, what is an initiative?
An initiative is a means by which a petition, signed by a requisite number of voters, can be presented as an electoral measure to the people as a whole.
During the Progressive Era, the right to propose initiatives was established in a number of state constitutions.
In the legislative process, what is a recall?
A recall allows voters to remove an elected government official from office with whom they are displeased.
During the Progressive Era, reformers championed the recall as a means of removing corrupt officials.
In the legislative process, what is a referendum?
A referendum allows voters to directly cast ballots on proposed laws.
Reformers championed the referendum as a means of enhancing the role of voters in their government during the Progressive Era.
In 1911, a fire at the ______ _____ ______ led to improved workers' safety laws.
Triangle Shirtwaist Factory
Some 146 factory workers, all women, died as a result of the fire. Unable to escape due to locked doors, women jumped from the 10th floor of the factory to avoid burning to death. Some of the fire's victims were as young as 14.
Progressives championed government takeover of utilities, including electric companies, streetcar lines, waterworks, and gasworks. Why?
Prior to the Progressive Era reforms, utilities formed a reliable source of jobs and funds for city bosses. By taking control of these formerly private companies, Progressives started to break the power of city bosses.
By 1915, supporters of Prohibition had convinced 2/3 of the states to issue complete bans on alcohol. What derisive nickname applied to those who supported Prohibition?
They were known as "drys." Their opponents, on the other hand, were known as "wets."
The drys won their war in 1919, when Prohibition was formally established nationwide by a Constitutional Amendment.
President Theodore Roosevelt summed up his labor policy by the term "Square Deal." What did Roosevelt mean?
Unlike most previous administrations, which had been pro-business, Roosevelt vowed to offer a Square Deal to both business and labor.
During a coal strike in 1902, Roosevelt forced arbitration on both sides, giving the United Mine Workers a 10% wage increase and a 9-hour day, but allowing the mine owners to avoid recognizing the unions.
As part of his "Square Deal" Roosevelt invoked the Sherman Act for what purpose?
Roosevelt attacked trusts, more specifically "bad trusts," those corporations he believed were acting contrary to the public interest. Roosevelt attacked and broke up some 40 companies, including the Northern Securities Company (a railroad trust) and Standard Oil.
Roosevelt supported ______ by establishing some of the first National Parks.
Roosevelt established five National Parks, 150 National Forests, four National Game Preserves, and 51 Federal Bird Reservations.
In the election of 1908, William Howard Taft, Roosevelt's chosen successor, defeated William Jennings Bryan, who was running for a third time. How did Taft distinguish his administration from Roosevelt's?
One of Taft's early actions was to attempt to break up U.S. Steel, which Roosevelt had considered a good trust. In addition, Taft fired Roosevelt's chosen head of the Forest Service, Gifford Pinchot, which angered Roosevelt.
What was "Dollar Diplomacy"?
After he became President in 1909, William Howard Taft adopted what pundits termed "Dollar Diplomacy." Taft's initiatives called for a more subdued foreign policy than Theodore Roosevelt, aimed at furthering American interests abroad by encouraging private U.S. investment.
When political instability threatened a nation, the U.S. intervened to uphold economic and political stability.
In 1912, U.S. Secretary of State Henry Cabot Lodge announced the Lodge Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine. What did the Lodge Corollary state?
Unlike previous corollaries, which had been directed to European nations, the Lodge Corollary stated that no nation would be permitted to acquire meaningful territory in the Western Hemisphere.
The Lodge Corollary was aimed at an expansionistic Japan, where investors were in negotiations with Mexico for the purchase of a large portion of Baja California.
In 1909, Progressive Republicans sought to oust the powerful Speaker of the House, Joseph "Uncle Joe" Cannon, a symbol of Conservative Republicans. How did President Taft respond?
Taft failed to support the Progressives, and Cannon remained as Speaker.
During the 1910 midterm elections, Taft lent vocal support to Conservative Republican candidates over Progressives. The move backfired, and Progressives were elected in large numbers. They ousted Cannon, and Taft's actions provoked a rift in the Republican Party between the Conservatives and Progressives.
During their Presidential convention in 1912, Conservative Republicans refused to admit Progressives, who supported ousting Taft and nominating Roosevelt for a third term. How did the Progressives respond?
They formed a third party, the Progressives, and nominated Theodore Roosevelt. The new party was nicknamed the "Bull Moose Party" after a reporter questioned Roosevelt's health, and was informed that Roosevelt felt as fit as a Bull Moose.
During the campaign, an assassin attempted to kill Roosevelt, but the bullet's force was blunted by a copy of Roosevelt's speech, carried in his front pocket. With a bullet in his chest, Roosevelt gave his speech and only then went to the hospital.
With Taft and Debs receiving little support, the 1912 presidential campaign became a contest between Teddy Roosevelt and New Jersey Governor Woodrow Wilson. What did Roosevelt propose to do if elected?
Calling his program "New Nationalism," Roosevelt proposed full suffrage for women, increased government regulation of business, and the creation a modest social welfare program.
In the 1912 election, Democratic Party nominee Woodrow Wilson's plan was termed "New Freedom." What did Wilson propose?
Similar to Roosevelt, Wilson proposed to target corruption and limit big business. Wilson assailed the "triple wall of privilege" -- trusts, banks, and tariffs.
With Republicans split between Taft and Roosevelt, Wilson became only the second Democratic President since the Civil War.
In addition to the Republicans, Democrats, and Progressives, Eugene V. Debs ran for President in 1912, as the nominee of the _____ _____.
Debs, who had turned to socialism after the Pullman Strike in 1894, earned 6% of the vote, the highest total the Socialist Party would ever receive. During World War I, the Socialist Party lost much of its influence and became an insignificant political force.
During the 1912 campaign, Democrat Woodrow Wilson vowed to reduce the "triple wall of privileges" -- tariffs, banks, and trusts. How did Wilson attack the high tariffs established by Republicans?
Wilson supported the Underwood Tariff, which reduced consumer prices. To offset the decrease in federal revenue, Wilson also proposed a graduated income tax, ranging from 1% to 6%. Congress passed both measures.
Woodrow Wilson saw banks as a necessary evil, under the thumb of the wealthy. How did Wilson seek to curb the banks' power?
Under Wilson, Congress established the Federal Reserve System in 1913. The Federal Reserve serves as the lender of last resort, lending money to banks in the event of a bank run, provided the bank is still solvent. With this role, the Federal Reserve can exercise a supervisory role over banks.
At the request of Woodrow Wilson, Congress increased federal oversight and regulation of business. What two steps did Congress take?
Congress strengthened the Sherman Antitrust Act by passing the Clayton Act, which increased the number of impermissible business activities.
Congress also created the Federal Trade Commission, which it empowered to investigate all "unfair trade practices."
In contrast to Teddy Roosevelt's "Big Stick Diplomacy" and Taft's "Dollar Diplomacy," what did Wilson term his foreign policy?
Wilson called his foreign policy "Moral Diplomacy." With William Jennings Bryan as Secretary of State, Wilson granted full territorial status and male suffrage to the Philippines, and guaranteed independence once a stable government was established.
Wilson also gave U.S. citizenship to Puerto Ricans and allowed the territory limited self-government.
In 1916, President Wilson directed General John Pershing to lead American troops into Northern Mexico, in an attempt to capture _____ _____.
Villa, who was leading a revolt against the Mexican government, had attacked Columbus, New Mexico, and Pershing's troops were sent to track him down.
Upon the outbreak of the First World War, Pershing was recalled and sent to France as the head of the American Expeditionary Forces.
In 1903, W.E.B. Du Bois published Souls of Black Folks, which took issue with Booker T. Washington's position on blacks' political, social, and economic rights. What did Du Bois argue?
Unlike Washington, who contended that equal political and social rights would follow economic equality, Du Bois contended that economic independence would result only if political and social equality were secured.
Du Bois and his supporters, known as the Niagara Movement, founded the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) to advocate for equal rights.
What was the First Great Migration?
Between 1900 and 1920, over a million blacks left the South and migrated to Northern cities, fleeing racial persecution and seeking jobs in Northern factories.
What organization was founded to aid Southern blacks migrating north during the First Great Migration?
Founded in 1911 to aid the new arrivals in Northern cities, the National Urban League's motto was "Not Alms But Opportunity," and it promoted black economic independence and self-reliance.
During the early years of the 20th century, new leaders arose to argue for women's suffrage, including Alice Paul, who broke with the National American Woman Suffrage Association to form the National Women's Party. What did Paul advocate?
Paul advocated for more strident suffrage efforts, including parades and hunger strikes.
Although her methods were disapproved of by Carrie Chapman Catt, the new head of the National American Woman Suffrage Association, both women's efforts were rewarded when the 19th Amendment granted female suffrage in 1920.