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Flashcards in Posterior Abdominal Wall Deck (45):
1

What is the origin of psoas major?

inferior border of T12 to upper border of L5 - vertebral bodies, vertebral discs and medial ends of transverse processes

2

What is the insertion of psoas major?

Lesser trochanter of the femur (with iliacus)

3

What is the action of psoas major?

Flexor of the hip/ flexor of the trunk

4

Where are the lumbar arteries and veins in relation to psoas?

Behind psoas

5

Where is the lumbar plexus in relation to psoas?

Within psoas

6

Where is the sympathetic trunk in relation to psoas?

Anterior surface of psoas

7

What is the origin of psoas minor?

T12 and L1

8

What is the insertion of psoas minor?

blends with periosteum of pelvis

9

What is the origin/insertions of quadratus lumborum?

12th rib, iliac crest, tips of transverse processes

10

What is the action of quadratus lumborum?

lateral flexor of the spine

11

What is the origin of iliacus?

Iliac fossa

12

What is the insertion of iliacus?

Lesser trochanter of femur with psoas

13

What are the 3 layers of the thoracolumbar fascia?

Anterior, middle and posterior - anterior and middle are only in the thoracolumbar region

14

Where do the 3 layers of the thoracolumbar fascia meet?

Along the line of the 12th rib

15

Where does the anterior layer of thoracolumbar fascia originate?

The tip of the transverse process

16

Where does the middle layer of the thoracolumbar fascia originate?

The tip of the transverse process

17

Where does the posterior layer of the thoracolumbar fascia originate?

the tip of the spinous process

18

What is the space between the anterior and middle layers of the thoracolumbar fascia?

The anterior compartment - contains quadratus lumborum

19

What is the space between the middle and posterior layers of the thoracolumbar fascia?

The posterior compartment - contains erector spinae

20

What is a psoas abscess?

A lump on the thigh which has tracked down from the spine via psoas (from TB in the spine)

21

At what level are the kidneys?

T12 to L3

22

Which rib are the kidneys in front of?

The 12th rib

23

Which kidney is lower?

the right

24

Why does the kidney move with respiration?

Because it is associated with the diaphragm

25

What are the dimensions of the kidney?

10cm long, 5cm wide, 2.5cm thick

26

What is the shape of the right adrenal gland?

Pyramidal

27

What is the shape of the left adrenal gland?

crescent shaped (on superomedial aspect of kidney)

28

What envelopes the kidney?

A fibrous capsule, perirenal fat and perirenal fascia

29

What is on the inside of the kidney?

An outer cortex and an inner medulla

30

In which direction does the hilum of the kidney face?

Anteromedially

31

What is the order of structures entering the hilum from front to back?

Renal vein, renal artery, renal pelvis

32

What is the renal sinus?

A space just inside the hilum which is full of fat which embeds the structures entering the hilum

33

What do the renal arteries branch off?

The abdominal aorta?

34

How does the right renal artery get past the IVC to get to the kidney?

By going behind the IVC

35

What does the renal artery divide into?

5 segmental arteries

36

Why is there sometimes an additional renal artery?

Because during development the blood supply changes as the kidney changes position on the posterior abdominal wall - one of the earlier arteries may persist

37

Where do the renal veins drain into?

The IVC

38

How does the left renal vein get past the aorta to get to the IVC?

By going on top of the aorta

39

Which artery hooks over the top of the left renal vein?

superior mesenteric artery

40

How many major calyces unite to form the renal pelvis?

2-3

41

How many minor calyces unite to form a major calyx?

2-3

42

How many medullary pyramids do each minor calyx collect from?

1

43

Which muscle does the ureter relate to?

Psoas major

44

What site do you use radiologically to map the descent of the ureters?

The tips of the transverse processes

45

What are the three sites of narrowing of the ureter?

At the beginning where it becomes the ureter, at the middle where it goes over the pelvic brim at at the end where it enters the bladder