Posterior Abdominal Wall & Associated Structures Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Posterior Abdominal Wall & Associated Structures Deck (32):
1

What do we mean by the "posterior abdominal wall"?

- the retroperitoneal region; the area behind the peritoneal cavity

2

Which abdominal viscera are retroperitoneal?

- SADPUCKER
- suprarenal (adrenal glands), aorta/IVC, duodenum*, pancreas*, ureters, colon (ascending and descending parts), kidneys, esophagus, rectum
- * = some parts are intraperitoneal

3

What parts of the duodenum are intraperitoneal?

- the duodenal cap (the first 2 cm) and the last portion (where it becomes the jejunum)

4

What parts of the pancreas are intraperitoneal?

- the tail

5

What opens into the peritoneal sac in men? What about in women?

- in men, the peritoneal sac is completely sealed
- in women, the sac has two openings via the fallopian tubes

6

Which organs lie within the peritoneal sac?

- none!
- no organ actually lie within the sac; the abdominal organs are invaginated into the sac, but are not actually in it

7

A reflection of peritoneum that forms a double layer, which sandwiches / "engulfs" intra-abdominal organs is called:

- a mesentery

8

What do we mean by retroperitoneal?

- an organ that is retroperitoneal has the peritoneum only along its anterior surface
- "behind the peritoneal cavity"

9

Peritoneal Ligaments

- these connect viscera together (or viscera to the abdominal wall) via a double fold of peritoneum

10

Coronary Ligaments

- the peritoneal ligaments of the liver that enclose the bare area of the diaphragm

11

Why does the blood supply for the gonads come all the way from the abdominal aorta?

- because the gonads are high up on the dorsal body wall when developing

12

Which abdominal veins drain into the azygous vein?

- the RIGHT ascending lumbar vein (and the right posterior intercostal veins)

13

Which abdominal veins drain into the hemiazygous vein?

- the LEFT ascending lumbar vein (and the left posterior intercostal veins)

14

Where do the azygous and hemiazygous veins drain into?

- the SVC

15

T or F: the left renal vein lies anterior to the aorta.

- true!
- usually, veins lie in front of arteries

16

T or F: both gonadal veins directly join the IVC.

- false!
- only the right gonadal vein directly joins the IVC
- the left gonadal vein dumps into the left renal vein

17

The vagus nerves enter the abdomen with the __________. They are part of the ___________ nervous system.

- they enter with the esophagus
- they are part of the parasympathetic system

18

The part of the stomach that becomes the duodenum is known as:

- the pylorus / pyloric canal

19

The part of the duodenum that becomes the jejunum is known as:

- the DJ (duodenal-jejunal) flexure

20

What is found in the 2nd part of the duodenum?

- the major and minor duodenal papillae

21

The major and minor duodenal papillae are the openings of what into the duodenum?

- they are the openings of the pancreatic and bile ducts
- major: both pancreatic and bile
- minor: only pancreatic

22

In pancreatic development, how many buds/outpouchings are involved? What are they called?

- two buds are involved
- the ventral pancreas and the dorsal pancreas

23

The _______ pancreas rotates around the gut tube to join the ________ pancreas, forming the __________.

- ventral pancreas rotates around to join the dorsal pancreas
- forms the uncinate process of the pancreas

24

What do the pancreatic buds specifically develop into?

- the ventral AND dorsal pancreas form the uncinate process and the head
- the dorsal pancreas forms the body and tail of the pancreas

25

Is the pancreas an exocrine gland or an endocrine gland?

- it is both!
- (exocrine = secretion via ducts, endocrine = direct secretion into bloodstream)

26

Which muscles form the posterior abdominal wall?

- diaphragm, quadratus lumborum, psoas major (minor), and iliacus

27

What are the extensions of the diaphragm running along the vertebrae called?

- each is a crus
- the right crus and left crus

28

How many arcuate ligaments does the diaphragm have? What are they?

- three
- median, medial, and lateral arcuate ligaments

29

Which renal vein is longer?

- the left one

30

Which arteries run along the greater curve of the stomach?

- the right and left gastro-epiploic (gastro-omental) arteries

31

Where does the left gastro-epiploic (gastro-omental) artery arise from? The right?

- left: via the splenic artery
- right: via the gastroduodenal artery via the common hepatic artery

32

From which four arteries do the ureters mainly get their blood supply from?

- from the renal artery, the gonadal artery, the common iliac artery and the internal iliac artery