Posterior Abdominal Wall & Associated Structures Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Posterior Abdominal Wall & Associated Structures Deck (32):

What do we mean by the "posterior abdominal wall"?

- the retroperitoneal region; the area behind the peritoneal cavity


Which abdominal viscera are retroperitoneal?

- suprarenal (adrenal glands), aorta/IVC, duodenum*, pancreas*, ureters, colon (ascending and descending parts), kidneys, esophagus, rectum
- * = some parts are intraperitoneal


What parts of the duodenum are intraperitoneal?

- the duodenal cap (the first 2 cm) and the last portion (where it becomes the jejunum)


What parts of the pancreas are intraperitoneal?

- the tail


What opens into the peritoneal sac in men? What about in women?

- in men, the peritoneal sac is completely sealed
- in women, the sac has two openings via the fallopian tubes


Which organs lie within the peritoneal sac?

- none!
- no organ actually lie within the sac; the abdominal organs are invaginated into the sac, but are not actually in it


A reflection of peritoneum that forms a double layer, which sandwiches / "engulfs" intra-abdominal organs is called:

- a mesentery


What do we mean by retroperitoneal?

- an organ that is retroperitoneal has the peritoneum only along its anterior surface
- "behind the peritoneal cavity"


Peritoneal Ligaments

- these connect viscera together (or viscera to the abdominal wall) via a double fold of peritoneum


Coronary Ligaments

- the peritoneal ligaments of the liver that enclose the bare area of the diaphragm


Why does the blood supply for the gonads come all the way from the abdominal aorta?

- because the gonads are high up on the dorsal body wall when developing


Which abdominal veins drain into the azygous vein?

- the RIGHT ascending lumbar vein (and the right posterior intercostal veins)


Which abdominal veins drain into the hemiazygous vein?

- the LEFT ascending lumbar vein (and the left posterior intercostal veins)


Where do the azygous and hemiazygous veins drain into?

- the SVC


T or F: the left renal vein lies anterior to the aorta.

- true!
- usually, veins lie in front of arteries


T or F: both gonadal veins directly join the IVC.

- false!
- only the right gonadal vein directly joins the IVC
- the left gonadal vein dumps into the left renal vein


The vagus nerves enter the abdomen with the __________. They are part of the ___________ nervous system.

- they enter with the esophagus
- they are part of the parasympathetic system


The part of the stomach that becomes the duodenum is known as:

- the pylorus / pyloric canal


The part of the duodenum that becomes the jejunum is known as:

- the DJ (duodenal-jejunal) flexure


What is found in the 2nd part of the duodenum?

- the major and minor duodenal papillae


The major and minor duodenal papillae are the openings of what into the duodenum?

- they are the openings of the pancreatic and bile ducts
- major: both pancreatic and bile
- minor: only pancreatic


In pancreatic development, how many buds/outpouchings are involved? What are they called?

- two buds are involved
- the ventral pancreas and the dorsal pancreas


The _______ pancreas rotates around the gut tube to join the ________ pancreas, forming the __________.

- ventral pancreas rotates around to join the dorsal pancreas
- forms the uncinate process of the pancreas


What do the pancreatic buds specifically develop into?

- the ventral AND dorsal pancreas form the uncinate process and the head
- the dorsal pancreas forms the body and tail of the pancreas


Is the pancreas an exocrine gland or an endocrine gland?

- it is both!
- (exocrine = secretion via ducts, endocrine = direct secretion into bloodstream)


Which muscles form the posterior abdominal wall?

- diaphragm, quadratus lumborum, psoas major (minor), and iliacus


What are the extensions of the diaphragm running along the vertebrae called?

- each is a crus
- the right crus and left crus


How many arcuate ligaments does the diaphragm have? What are they?

- three
- median, medial, and lateral arcuate ligaments


Which renal vein is longer?

- the left one


Which arteries run along the greater curve of the stomach?

- the right and left gastro-epiploic (gastro-omental) arteries


Where does the left gastro-epiploic (gastro-omental) artery arise from? The right?

- left: via the splenic artery
- right: via the gastroduodenal artery via the common hepatic artery


From which four arteries do the ureters mainly get their blood supply from?

- from the renal artery, the gonadal artery, the common iliac artery and the internal iliac artery