Flashcards in Posterior Abdominal Wall & Associated Structures Deck (32):
What do we mean by the "posterior abdominal wall"?
- the retroperitoneal region; the area behind the peritoneal cavity
Which abdominal viscera are retroperitoneal?
- suprarenal (adrenal glands), aorta/IVC, duodenum*, pancreas*, ureters, colon (ascending and descending parts), kidneys, esophagus, rectum
- * = some parts are intraperitoneal
What parts of the duodenum are intraperitoneal?
- the duodenal cap (the first 2 cm) and the last portion (where it becomes the jejunum)
What parts of the pancreas are intraperitoneal?
- the tail
What opens into the peritoneal sac in men? What about in women?
- in men, the peritoneal sac is completely sealed
- in women, the sac has two openings via the fallopian tubes
Which organs lie within the peritoneal sac?
- no organ actually lie within the sac; the abdominal organs are invaginated into the sac, but are not actually in it
A reflection of peritoneum that forms a double layer, which sandwiches / "engulfs" intra-abdominal organs is called:
- a mesentery
What do we mean by retroperitoneal?
- an organ that is retroperitoneal has the peritoneum only along its anterior surface
- "behind the peritoneal cavity"
- these connect viscera together (or viscera to the abdominal wall) via a double fold of peritoneum
- the peritoneal ligaments of the liver that enclose the bare area of the diaphragm
Why does the blood supply for the gonads come all the way from the abdominal aorta?
- because the gonads are high up on the dorsal body wall when developing
Which abdominal veins drain into the azygous vein?
- the RIGHT ascending lumbar vein (and the right posterior intercostal veins)
Which abdominal veins drain into the hemiazygous vein?
- the LEFT ascending lumbar vein (and the left posterior intercostal veins)
Where do the azygous and hemiazygous veins drain into?
- the SVC
T or F: the left renal vein lies anterior to the aorta.
- usually, veins lie in front of arteries
T or F: both gonadal veins directly join the IVC.
- only the right gonadal vein directly joins the IVC
- the left gonadal vein dumps into the left renal vein
The vagus nerves enter the abdomen with the __________. They are part of the ___________ nervous system.
- they enter with the esophagus
- they are part of the parasympathetic system
The part of the stomach that becomes the duodenum is known as:
- the pylorus / pyloric canal
The part of the duodenum that becomes the jejunum is known as:
- the DJ (duodenal-jejunal) flexure
What is found in the 2nd part of the duodenum?
- the major and minor duodenal papillae
The major and minor duodenal papillae are the openings of what into the duodenum?
- they are the openings of the pancreatic and bile ducts
- major: both pancreatic and bile
- minor: only pancreatic
In pancreatic development, how many buds/outpouchings are involved? What are they called?
- two buds are involved
- the ventral pancreas and the dorsal pancreas
The _______ pancreas rotates around the gut tube to join the ________ pancreas, forming the __________.
- ventral pancreas rotates around to join the dorsal pancreas
- forms the uncinate process of the pancreas
What do the pancreatic buds specifically develop into?
- the ventral AND dorsal pancreas form the uncinate process and the head
- the dorsal pancreas forms the body and tail of the pancreas
Is the pancreas an exocrine gland or an endocrine gland?
- it is both!
- (exocrine = secretion via ducts, endocrine = direct secretion into bloodstream)
Which muscles form the posterior abdominal wall?
- diaphragm, quadratus lumborum, psoas major (minor), and iliacus
What are the extensions of the diaphragm running along the vertebrae called?
- each is a crus
- the right crus and left crus
How many arcuate ligaments does the diaphragm have? What are they?
- median, medial, and lateral arcuate ligaments
Which renal vein is longer?
- the left one
Which arteries run along the greater curve of the stomach?
- the right and left gastro-epiploic (gastro-omental) arteries
Where does the left gastro-epiploic (gastro-omental) artery arise from? The right?
- left: via the splenic artery
- right: via the gastroduodenal artery via the common hepatic artery