Posterior Pituitary, Thyroid, Repro, GI Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Posterior Pituitary, Thyroid, Repro, GI Deck (51):
1

What are the two hormones stored in the posterior pituitary

ADH (antidiuretic hormone) and Oxytocin

2

what is the part of the hypothalamus that produces ADH

supraoptic nucleus

3

what is the part of the hypothalamus that produces Oxytocin

Paraventricular nucleus

4

what is vasopressin

ADH

5

what is the function of ADH

initiates water reabsorption in the kidneys, increases blood pressure

6

what causes increased ADH secretion

sweating, nicotine, sleeping

7

what causes decreased ADH secretion

alcohol, caffeine, drinking lots of water

8

what is caused by low ADH levels

diabetes insipidus

9

What is the function of Oxytocin

causes uterine contraction, contraction during orgasm, milk let down

10

what is unique about the oxytocin regulation system

it is a positive feedback system

11

where is the pineal gland, and what does it do

it is part of the epithalamus, and it produces melatonin from seratonin.

12

what is the function of melatonin

it helps regulate circadian rhythm, anti-oxidant, inhibits reproductive function (via inhibiting GnRH)

13

what is the problem caused by pineal tumors which cause low melatonin

precocious puberty (early puberty)

14

What is the anatomy of thyroid follicles

a wall of simple cuboidal epithelium, a cavity of viscous colloid. surrounded by capillaries

15

what is the synthesized by thyroid follicles and stored in the colloid of them

thyroglobulin (globular protein)

16

what is thyroglobulin

a globular protein synthesized and stored in thyroid follicles that contains tyrosine, which is the main building block of thyroid hormones

17

What are the thyroid hormones

thyroxine (T4) (tetraiodothyronine)
triiodothyronine (T3)

18

what is caused by a lack of dietary iodine

endemic goiter

19

what are the target cells of thyroid hormones

most cells in the body

20

what does it mean that thyroid hormones have a calorigenic effect

they produce heat

21

what are the functions of thyroid hormones

1. increases oxygen use and energy use
2. increases heart rate and contraction force (high bp)
3. increased sensitivity to sympathetic stimulation
4. helps sensitivity of respiratory centers to concentration
5. stimulate erythropoeisis
6. stimulates endocrine activity
7. accelerates mineral turnover in bone

22

What does hyperthyroidism (thyrotoxicosis) cause

high metabolic rate, weight loss, hyperactivity, always hot, tachycardia, (graves disease - exopthalmos)

23

what is hashimoto thyroiditis

hypothyroidism leading to low metabloic rate, weight gain, fatigue, feeling cold

24

what is myxedemia

sever hypothyroidism in adults - apathy, slugishness, cold, obese

25

what is cretinism

extreme hypothyroidism in children - retardation, short stature, protruding tongue

26

what is calcitonin

hormone produced by C (parafollicular) cells, that decreases blood calcium and causes calcium uptake in the bones, and stimulates Ca excretion from the kidneys

27

what are the parathyroid glands

four small glands on the posterior of the thyroid gland that produce the parathyroid hormone

28

what is parathyroid hormone

a hormone produced in the parathyroid (chief) cells that increases osetoclast activity, increases blood calcium, reabsorption of Ca in the kidneys, stimulates calcitrol from the kidneys (antagonist to calcitonin)

29

What is caused by hyperfunction of the parathyroid

osteoporosis, kidney stones, depression

30

what is caused by hypofunction of the parathyroid

low blood calcium - muscle cramps, numbness, tetanus, mood swigns

31

which organs have secondary endocrine functions

gonads, intestines, kidneys, heart, thymus, and adipose

32

what are the hormones produced by the ovaries

estrogens, inhibin, and progestins

33

what are estrogens

hormones produces by ovarian follicular cells that stimulate follicle maturation, secondary sex characteristics, and behaviors

34

What is ovarian inhibin

a hormone produced by the follicular cells that targets the pituitary gland and inhibits FSH secretion

35

what are progestins

hormones produced by the corpus luteum that target the uterus and mammary glands. they prepare the uterus for implantation, and mammary glands for secretion

36

What are the hormones produced by the testis

androgens and inhibin

37

what are androgens

hormones produced by the interstitial cells of the testis that target most cells and cause the maturation of sperm, secondary sex characteristics, and synthesis of skeletal muscle

38

what is testicular inhibin

a hormone produced by the nurse cells of the testis that targets the pituitary gland and inhibits FSH secretion

39

what can excess androgens cause

hirsutism or hypretrichosis (excessive hair growth)

40

what are problems with anabolic steroid use

liver damage, jaundice, fluid retention, high blood pressure, increased cholesterol, shrinking of testis, baldness, boobs, infertility, stunted height, severe acne

41

what are the hormones of the intestines and what do they do

secretin, gastrin, cholecystokinin. they coordinate digestive activities

42

what are the hormones produced by the kidneys

Erythropoetin, calcitrol, and renin

43

what is the action of erthyropoetin (EPO)

causes blood vessel constriction and increased RBC production in red bone marrow

44

what is the action of calcitrol

calcium release from bone, inhibition of parathyroid hormone

45

what is the action of Renin

stimulates the renin-angiotensin system
(renin - angiotensin 1 - angiotensin 2 = aldosterone and ADH) decreases water loss, stimulates thirst, increases blood pressure

46

what are the hormones of the heart

natriuretic peptides (ANP - atrial) BNP - brain

47

what stimulates the heart to release natriuretic peptides

increased blood volume/stretching of the heart

48

what do natriuretic peptides of the heart do

increase water and salt loss at kidneys
decrease thirst
supress ADH and aldosterone secretion

49

What is the thymus

an organ that atrophies at puberty, but produces thymopoeitin and thymosins in youth

50

what do thymopoietin, and thymosins do

coordinates and regulates immune responses

51

what hormone does adipose secrete and what does it do

leptin, it targets the hypothalamus and causes suppression of appetite and increased gonadotropin synthesis