Posture and Balance Flashcards Preview

Medicine, Year 2, Block 12 (Neurological, Neuromuscular, and MSK Diseases) > Posture and Balance > Flashcards

Flashcards in Posture and Balance Deck (29):
1

What is the definition of "Posture"?

Relative position of various parts with respect to one another, the environment and gravity

2

Maintaining posture requires what kind of tone?

Extensor tone

3

What are the four descending tracts which comprise the Ventromedial pathways?

- Vestibulospinal Tract
- Tectospinal Tract
- Pontine Reticulospinal Tract
- Medullary Reticulospinal Tract

4

The Vestibulospinal Tract receives sensory input from where..?

Inner ear

5

The Tectospinal Tract receives sensory input from where..?

Retina of eye

6

Where does the Vestibulospinal tract originate from?

Vestibular nuclei in medulla

7

Where does the Tectospinal Tract originate from?

Super colliculus

8

Where does the Pontine Reticulospinal Tract originate from?

Reticular formation

9

Where does the Medullary Reticulospinal Tract originate from?

Reticular formation

10

The Pontine Reticulospinal Tract receives sensory input from where..?

Cerebellum / cortex

11

The Medullary Reticulospinal Tract receives sensory input from where..?

Cerebellum / cortex

12

In humans with extensive cortical damage, why might a patient appear rigid with increased extensor tone?

Because brainstem action is highly extensor, however there is cerebral inhibition usually

Decerebrate Response / Rigidity

13

Decerebrate Response / Rigidity can be seen in which condition?

Cerebral malaria

14

State the names of the two main structures of the Vestibular System

Otolith organs
Semi-circular canals

15

What do the Otolith organs detect?

Forces of gravity / tilting of head (linear acceleration)

16

What do the Semi-circular canals detect?

Head rotations (rotational motion and angular acceleration)

17

What are the two Otolith organs?

Utricle and saccule

18

Describe the structure of the Utricle / Saccules

Macula of sensory epithelium, which is made up of Hair cells and Supporting cells which penetrate into a Gelatinous cap. On top of this is Calcium carbonate crystals

19

What is the difference between the Utricle and Saccule?

The Utricle is oreintated horizonally, whereas the Saccule is orientated vertically

20

What do the Utricle Otolith organs detect?

Horizontal linear acceleration

21

What do the Saccule Otolith organs detect?

Vertical linear acceleration

22

Semicircular canals are filled with a fluid called?

Endolymph

23

What is Caloric testing?

Irrigation of ear with cold / warm water, with temperature setting up convection currents in the endolymph to induce the vestibulo-ocular reflex

24

What can Caloric testing be used for?

As a means to test brainstem function

25

If Caloric testing, and only one eye moves in direction but the other remains still - what does this mean?

Medial Longitudinal Fasciculus Lesion

26

What is the Positive Supporting Reaction reflex?

Placing a limb on the ground initiates a set of reflexes which stiffen the limb

27

Give an example of a condition which is a disorder of the Vestibular system.

Meniere's Syndrome
Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo
Migraine Associated Vertigo

28

What is Meniere's syndrome caused by?

Caused by increased endolymph

29

What is Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo caused by?

Dislodged calcium carbonate crystals from otolith organs