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0

What should be included in history taking of poultry?

age breed sex, eatingm diet, drink, diarr, pupd, sneeze, plumage, demeanor.
wormed, product, ectoparasites, onset of disease, vacc, health of others, last moult, broody?, in lay?

1

what shuld be included in the clinical exam of a bird?

what is the owner prepared to do?
dropping, ocular, nasal, bcs, ectoparasites, feathering, previous disease, TPR. crop fill, uropygial gland, feet, MS system, bcs by the keel, blood tests, feathers,

2

egg eating? prevention better than cure how? if they start, how can you stop them?

habit! esp if you break an egg! prevention better than cure - plenty of nest boxes which are darkened, remove eggs daily, above birds eye level, place china eggs/ping pong balls, fill empty shells with mustard powder or chilli.

3

broodiness? which birds dont brood? cx?

hybrids dont brood - bred out of them. stay on her nest and puffs herself up may get feather loss, lay get aggressive. hard to break. wire bottom cage in a bright place!

4

sexual trauma? prevent?

cockrels - damage certain hens and pluck out feathers. trim spurs and min of 8 hens per cockrel. always use protection.

5

avian influenza? cx? nd!!

outbreaks. uncommon. very sick and dying birds. resp signs. contact an expert. defra!

6

newcastle disease - cx? vacc?

enteritis, sick birds, neuro, resp disease. all commercial pullets will have benn vacc.

7

the sick chick? why suceptible in first few days? if under 5 d old?
- yolk sac infection? cx? tx?
- aspergillosis? cx? from? tx?
- starve outs - cx? tx? pm?

- cannot maintain body temp - environment is very important! usually under 5 d old - bacterial yolk sac infection or a starve out!
- yolk sac - 1st week. small dull and hunched. PTS. inflammed yolk sac and bad smell. septicaemia? swabs. tx - prevent - lincospectin, only clean, washed eggs should be incbated.
- aspergillus - small white plaques, lungs and air sacs, histo! inhale spores. replace bedding and PTS.
- starve outs - small and dull and empty crop. fresh food and water and electrolytes. pm - dehydrated. dark mm and urates fatty liver and enlarged gal bladder.

8

diarrhoea? 3 main causes? investigation?

history - diff from plyuria/ age? cocci? worming? droppings?
ddx - cocci, bacterial, worms, renal/hepatic, egg bound.
- cocci - eimeria, dull hunched, ruffled feathers, diarr and blood. intestinal heam. anaemia, cx and oocysts, baycox! tlc and multivits etc. monesin - care as toxic to horses.
- bacterial - test faeces, ab's - amoxicillin. or tiamulin - 0 d w/d. tlc and multivits.
-worms - anaemia, wl, ill thirft. ascarids, cappilaria, gapeworm, - flubenvet to worm spring and autumn. plus wec's.

9

the sneezing hen? ddx? cx? MG/IB - result in? IB in young chicks?
dx?
tx?

normally rest of flock affected. check swollen sinuses and foamy eyes.
ddx - infectious bronchitis (IB) m.gallisepticum, avian rhinotracheitis, infectious larngygio tracheitis, ND, AI, gapeworm.
cx - chesty, sneeze, swollen sinuses, foamy eyes.
MG/IB - damage to oviduct and egg shell - abnormal shells and loss of pigment. IB - in young damages oviduct - leads to internal /nlind layers.
dx - serology
tx - ab's tetras treat all birds. isolate and tlc.

10

blind layers/internal layer? caused by? 2 to? permanent?

caused by malfunction of the oviduct. enter abdo. egg yolk peritonitis.
may be caused bu stress and therefore resolves.
permanent - IB infection when young. leads to damage to the oviduct. poor prog. - upright stance and penguin like.

11

egg bound? causes? cx? dx? tx?

cannot pass the egg. obese, large egg, mishsapen. ca nbalance, stress.
cx - strain, dull, hunched, fever.
dx - cx, digital probe, xrays.
tx - lube abs, manuallu break and remove, surgery and spay.

12

egg peritonitis? caused by? cx? why ideal bacterial medium?
dx?
tx?

infection of abdo. blind or internal layers. nutrient rich egg yolk - ideal bacterial medium.
cx - pyrexia, enlarged, abdo, dull, upright, stance
dx - cx and abdominocentsis.
tx - support, ivft, abs surgery and spay. lavage abdo.

13

teh wobbly hen? due to?
cx?
ddx?
2 forms?

neuro. ataxia, imbalance, abnormal head and neck posture.
mareks - herpevirus, transforms t cells. immunosuppressed. tumours too. in nervous system.
2 forms - acute - poor growth and dull and diarr. changes in liver and spleen. classic - ataxia and paralysis.

14

wobbly hen may also be due to? ddx?

meningitis? - head tilt, ataxia, dull and dep. responds to meds and tlc. ab's enroflox.
ddx - trauma, mareks, botulism, ND, AI.

15

the lame chicken? ddx? tx?

bumble foot. staph. lance abscesses and drain, and ab.
attend to environment and foot damage. (clipped wings esp)

16

crop bound? cx? cause? tx?

dull and inapp. neuro/due to fb/long grass.
lavage and massage out. surgery?

17

sour crop? due to ? cx? tx?

due to overgrowth and candida albicans. fungus! mouldy feed? distended anf fluid filled crop? surgery and lavage! antifungals. eg. enilconazole.

18

the bald chciken? ddx?
- feather picker? due to? tx?
- moulting? how often? tx?
ectoparasites - ddx?

moult, ectoparasite, peck, overmating, severe nutritional def.
- feather picker - too much light? cramped, stress nutrition, lack git, bored.
habit. distract and supp feed. multivits, increase space, anti peck spray. red light or reduce intensity.
- moult - normal! 1x year. usually after lay. multivits supp.
ecto - red mite, lice, scaly leg mite.

19

ectoparasites - chicken. ddx the bald chicken.
3 types?

red mite - nocturnal, infest birds and housing. life cycles short. insecticides!
- lice - common chicken louse - grey/yellow. under wings and around vent. feeds on feather debris. northern mite - dark brown. ear canal. ivermectin!
- scaly leg mite - beneath leg scales, burrows. swell and bleed. wash and dry and shampoo tooth bursh. ivermectin

20

ddx anaemia - chicken?

cocci, red mite, haem eg diarr, warfarin toxicity.

21

av 02 - resp dieases. 9 ddx?

AI, ND, avian pneumovirus, infectious largyngiotracheitis, infectious bronchitis, fowl coryza, staph, pasturlla, mycoplasmas.

22

avian influenza? cx? 1 source? 2?
cx?
ddx?

rna virus, high path/low path.
resp, sub cut haem, congested, diarr, nervous signs. 1 -faeces water and ducks,
2 - mech, faceces, windbourne, water bourne.
control - stamp out restricted move, vacc?
ddx - other septicaemias. pcr and pm.

23

Newcastle disease? carried by? source? sprwad? control? icp index? means?

carried by all avians. invade and rep in all tissues. low virulence - resp and neteric neuro.
icp -- path.
by spectrum of organs affected.
source -wild birds, droppings, water.
trans - contact, airborunre, water, human.
control - bio, vaccs,
live and low icp index - can invade and rep in vacc birds but no cx and can act as a soucre to other birds.

24

avian pneumovirus? cx? dx? tx?

rna virus. cx - sinusitis, 2 bacterial, swollen head, pale eggs. loss of prod, nervous signs
dx - pcr, serology
vacc - 1st 2 weeks of broilers life as not spread vertically.

25

infectious laryngeotracheitis? (ILT)
cx?
vacc?

resp disease. production drops. mortality due to pus and plugs in trachea. vacc - causes mild disease. not spread vertically.

26

infectious bronchitis? reaches? cx? infection in young?
shed from?
dx?
control?

coronavirus. start in trachea. reachs=es kidney and oviduct. eggs shells thin and losse pigment. infect young - internal layers and egg yolk peritonitis. poor prog due to damage of oviduct. 2 bacterial common.
shed from resp and droppings. not spread vertically.
dx - pcr. persistis in caecal tonsil, - sample!
control bio and vaccs.

27

fowl coryza - caused by? cx?

haemophillus para gallinarum
very contagious.
sinuses and nasal discharge.

28

staph and resp diease? cx?

wattles infected- local abscesses and swelling.

29

pasturella - resp disease.? causes? type? spread by?
tx?

septicaemia. p. multocida. swollen wattles,
spread by rodents and birds.
tx - abs. vaccs.

30

mycoplasmas? 2 types?
cx?
MG?
MS?
testing? vaccs?

m.galliseptcum/m. synoviae
MG - more liekly to cause disease. resp, joints, tracheitis, swolen sinises, conjunctivitis.
MS - air sacculitis and embryo death. glassy topped eggs. bio!

testing - culture and pcr. swabs - test every 2-3 weeks in high risk area. eggs can be removed before hatch and spread it!
vcacc - live/dead. use live!

31

enteric disease? most gut issues seen in? why? gut of a chicken?
normal digestion and absorbtion?
litter management?

enteric - broilers mostly. growing very fast. drink alot.
gut - crop, provent, gizzard, caecal tonsils. cloaca.
normal - examine droppings and litter. urine and faeces mixed. problems lead to increased h20 intake. measure and record water consumption daily.
litter - bad leads to pododerm. temp, vent and humidity inportant. hum - <70%. vent prevents levels of c02 and ammonia build up.

32

fowl pox? - enteric.
cx?
spread by?
control by?

pox like lesions around - head mouth, oral cavity, cloaca.
spread by biting insects,
not in uk.
control by wing web vacc.
ddx mycotoxins. - oral ulcers.

33

ddx enteric?

fowl pox, gizzard lesions, necrotic enteritis - cl.perfringens. , viral - rota. , cocci, dysbacteriosis, blackhead, brachyspira. or volvulus etc intuss.

34

gizzard lesions - cx? histo?

localised. poor broiler growth.
adenovirus
histo - intranuclear inclusion bodies.

35

necrotic enteritis? due to ? pm lesions?

broilers. necrosis on villi. cl. perfringens. pm - turkish towel.

36

viral enteritis? due to? control? bio?

rota, cicroviruses.
control - clean out and sisinfect. formaldehyde - many are resistant to alot but this works.
clean house and surroundings, inspect sops, and follow, viricidal disinfectant. clean water and feeders, avoid short turn around times.
bio - care of all vectors. footbath, change clothes and etc.

37

coccidosis? cx? dx? scoring system/. tx?

eimeria. common cause of pp and wet litter. may see blood. dull/sick. reluctant to eat or move. much s/c disease.
damage to gut wall. ooctys in faeces.
scoring system - 0-4
tx - monesin etc. anti - protozoal.

38

dysbacteriosis? due to? cx?

after removal of ab growth promoters. leave sabnormal balance of bacteria in the guts,
wet litter and pale droppings, undigested feed, foamy caecal dropping, orange, slippery, fluctuating water intake too - often increases. increased water content of droppings. can squeeze water out.

39

blackhead - enteric! due to? cx?

heterakis worl in caecum. carries hisomoniasis - cause blackhead.
lesions on surface of liver. caecal cores and hobnail.

40

brachyspira? cx? dx? enteric.

faomy droppings, usually free range.
mainly in caecum. fresh smears of gut - aid dx.

41

av04 - diseases of broilers.
when are broilers killed? this means what about brooding?
explain whole house brooding?
build up of c02 prevented by - predisposes to?
humidity? not below ? or chick will? if high RH after 18 days - leads to?

killed at 39d old. rooding period takes up more of lifetime.
whole house brooding - at chick level - 29-30 temp. reduce gradually. final temp of 20-22 by day 21-24.
vent prevents the build up of co2. this would lead to ascites.
RH - if under 50% in 1st week - leads to dehydration. as they grow they need it less so if it is still high at 18 d - leads to wet litter problems.

42

production disease of broilers? 3 main ones? ascites, skeltal, pododerm.
explain ascites.?

ascites - fluid in abdo cavity. usually due to heart failure. keep RH high in 1st week. - reduces dehydration. very high demand for 02 and grow so quickly. if cv system cant cope. r vent hypertrophy. - need to maintain a good temp - 24 degrees - less energy need for temp reg. air quality also important - if high c02 - less 02 absorbed. etc. need low dust and ammonia.

43

production disease 2? - expain skeletal abnormalities? - 4 types. factors? rotational and angular, spondylopathies, dyschondroplasia, rickets.

high demands. body weight grows fast and also egg production in layers.
may be downgraded adue to fractures and pts etc. if they cant move. starved and dehydrated.
a) rotational and angular - distal limbs, rickets? slow the growth rate and reduce the feed! may also be due to low vit b.
b) spondylopathies - vertebral deformities. common in thoracic. causes posterior paralysis due to spinal cord compression.
c) dyschondroplasia - masses of avascular cartilage. failure of chondrocytes to diff. thickened growth plates in prox tibiotarsus and tarsometatarsus. bwoing and fractures.
genetics - ca:po4 ratio, acidosis, mycotoxins etc are all factors.
d) rickets - ca def, vit d etc. failure to mineralise. flexible long bones. s/c very common. thickened growth plates pp. bacterial infections also common

44

production diseases 3) plantar pododermatitis? due to? tx?

ulceration of foot pads. wet/poor litter is a common cause.
biotin def causes even if litter good. ulcerated foot pads can get 2 infected and caked in litter.

45

infectious disease of broilers? (2)
a)bursal disease? also called? causes? leads to?
b) infectious skeletal disorders?

a) gumboro - IBD. (infectious bursal disease) cause immunosuppression. reduced responses to vaccs. reactions to vaccs and increased in fections.
- IBV, nd, bacterial, parasites, mareks etc.
2 clinical forms - depdns on age:
i) less then 3 w/o no cx but severe immunosuppression.
ii) 3-6 w/o - cx! ruffled, fever, tremble diarr, immune suppression. compromise ab mediated mechs. do not vacc. each holding must design own vacc.
b) infectious skeeltal disorders - staph! mycoplasma?
prox femur and tibiotarsus. femoral head necorsis? may be from tendoitis? cocci? cx - abs
amyloidosis - arthropathy. hocks. contaminated vaccs? - if given into leg mm. - unilateral!

46

Peritonitis of layers? caused by? yolk provides? often occurs if? cx?
what is 'EODES'?
how to prevent?

egg yolk preitonitis. May be due to IB - reachs oviduct and kidneys - causes deformed oviduct and so internal layers. abdo distended, mild inflamm, excellent growth medium for bacteria. also air sacs - may enter. cx - fibrin/albumen material in the hen. may cause deaths. lodged egg? culture?
EODES - hens with too many large ovarian follicles, erratic oviposition and defective egg syndrome.
avoid light excess as pullets follow bw, recommendatioms, overweight hens have a high incidence of erratic ovulations.

47

what is EODES? leads to?

erratic oviposition and defective egg syndrome. leads to egg yolk peritonitis. may be seen if hens overweight.

48

mareks disease? layers. caused by? path?
trans? vaccs? - after vacc how long until protected?
shed in?

herpes virus. easily spread and survives well. transform cells and tumours of liver spleen and other organs. most are positive.
spreads by many ways but not vertical.
vacc day old chicks. bio! - does not stop infection but decreases tumour formation. after vacc - chicks not protected until vaccine multiplied and est. therefore do not expose for 1st 14d of life and ideally 28d. dont mix ages. shed in feather and skin debris. clean all and fumigate.

49

osteopaenia? i n layers?
due to? definition?
also called?
cx? may be due to?

osteoporosis and osteomalacia. - deficiency in the quantity of fully mineralised structural bone.
'caged layer fatigue'
paralysed, sternum deformed, nfolding of the ribs, fractures, medulla is osteomalacic.
lack of exercise of high egg prod may cause.
severe if rickets.

50

tendon rupture? layers. due to?

outbreaks in broilers due to management practices. stress, joint, tendon, eg. low feed space, cocci, stock rates, egg prod.

51

salmonella in layers? types? trans? vacc?
control?

s.gallinarum, s. pullorum, s.enteridis, s.typhimurim.
trans - vertical. ensure breeding flocks are free.
zero tolerance in genetic stock. positive culled.
vacc breeders and layers.
serology!
monitor environment - swabs. quar.
control - well cleaned. day old chicks from salmonella free. screening. only pelleted feed. water from good sources. bird pfoor houses and rodent control.
vacc
lion code - layers vacc.

52

gamebirds? av06. why do people keep them? what species mainly?
pheasants delivered at what age?
partridge at?
incubation of partridge eggs? pheasant?

shooting commercial shoots. private. etc.
grouse woodcock turkeys etc.
deliver pheasants at 6-7 weeks old.
deliver partridge at 8-16 weeks.
incubate pheasant for 32d
partridge - 23d.

53

shooting? seasons?
pheasant?
partridge?
grouse?

pheasant - 1 oct - 1 feb
partridge - sep1 - feb1.
grouse earlier

54

diseases of gamebirds?
chick?
rearing?
release?
adult layers?

chick - yolk sac, starve outs, asper, rota, sal.
rear - cocci, srionucleus, myco
release - gameworm
adult - coronva, nephritis, marble spleen disease.

55

starve out? cx? when will they die? causes?

underweight, no food in crop gozzard, die after 3-4d after yolk sac digested. unpalatble feed, temp, lack of light

56

yolk sac infections? in chicks? why?

chick had eaten. yolk sac inflammed. omphalitis? 5-6d old. smells. investigate hatch and transfer to brood. injected bv and enlarged yolk.

57

aspergillus? in chicks? age? cx? pm? cx?

2-3 weeks old, after this they resistant. gasp and die. small white nodules on air sacs. investigate managaement.

58

rotavirus in chicks? age? cx? trans?

3-6 d old. high mortality.
caecum enlarged. bubbly yellow fluid. septicaemia, toxaemia, dehydrated,
wasted and stunted,
vertical trans,

59

salmonella in chicks? type?

s.pallorum. enteridis, typhimurium.

60

cocci? - rearers. cx? tx?

gut parasites. lesion score. damages villi and intestine. lymphatic infiltrate. hunched up and look for heat.
tx - baycox and ampyrolium in water. heavily stocked and easily stressed means prone. disinfect.

61

spironucleus? in rearers.
where? cx? tx?

protzoa. look like sprerm. wasting. tetra/tiamulin. yellow bubbly scour.

62

gapeworm? at release? cx? pm?

very short pre-patent period. tracheal worm. outstretched neck. open beaks and cough. pm - red worms in wind pipe. worm!

63

mycoplasma? types? associated to? tx?
cx?

m.gallisepticum. upper resp disease. associated to trt, ibv, pasturella.
spread rapdily.
hard to treat - tilmycosin, vacc.
sinusitis, eyes closed, swollen head.

64

coronavirus nephritis? age? cx? tx?

viral. adults. bronchitis?. kidney damage and urate deposits. birds die. hard tp treat. vacc! white diarr, stress induced and visceral gout. amoxycillin?

65

marble spleen disease? caused by? age? cx?
histo?

type 2 adenovirus. realted to turkey heam enteritis. suddenly dead. good bcs. exudate in ribs and lungs. spleen path. intranuclear inclusion bodies and lymphoid follicles necrotic.

66

ND's of poultry. general disease control?

quar, disease test, vaccs, well maintained structures, on farm incinerator, feed silos, no weeds, concrete etc, rodent control.

67

export rules? poultry?

poultry health scheme. mycoplasma and salmonnela tests.

68

general clinical signs on farm?

severe to mild. epidemics, cold ruffled, inactive, drink less, egg drop, egg quality, less eaten. poor hatchability. check records!!

69

how long should you keep poultry records for?

12 m/o. other records may beuseful but not legal!

70

what pm sign will AI have?
ND?

Ai - haemorrhagic and petechail haem.
ND - caecal tonsils, peyer matches.

71

lab samps for testing?

fresh carcass, cloacal swabs, trachel swabs - viruses, clotted bloods for serology. - vacc?

72

AI cx?

high mortality? fowl plaque. dep, weak, sit, semi coma, app reduced, egg prod, soft shelled eggs, swollen head, swollen hocks, red legs and odeama. pancreatic necrosis resp disease.

73

AI control measures? if outbreak? vacc?
highly path defined as?
zones protection? then what? ND?

vcc banned in uk. if outbreak - protection zones of - 3 km and 10km surviellance, need special licenses to move them. 21/30 days after clean and disinfect restock and swab after 14d (cloacal) and sent for virus siolation. all vacc and test dead ones.
Ai - high path defined as icp>1.2 or and h5/h7 subtype . tested for with pcr ND - by cloacal swabs. procedures for low path too as could mutate.
ND - icp over 0.7. may find but not be virulent enough,

74

paramyxovirus of pigeons? control? cx?
replace with? testing? restrictions until? ddx?
disposal of faeces?

recover thereofre dont need to cull. call ahvla.
visit loft. vacc. must replace with vacc birds. restriction notice served and take cloacal swabs - if vacc. bloods if unvacc.
if not poultry - restricted until 60 after ahvla notified of recovery from disease.
ddx salmonella. care where disposing of feaeces.

75

psittacosis?/ornithiasis? caused by? ND? see cx when? zoo?
c+d using? restrictions lifted when?

chlamydophila psittaci causes. cx seen when stressed. isolate by pcr. dairr and resp and nervous signs.
cx - anorexia, d and pyrexia, and drop in egg prod.
humans can kill and flu like symtoms. zoo!
if you dont cull - c+d using quaternary ammonium and lift restrictions after 28d. when okay.