PPS Policy Statements Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in PPS Policy Statements Deck (263):
1

Bioactive Components in Breastmilk

lysozymes
immunoglobulins
hormones
growth factors
immune function modulators
anti-inflammatory components
cellular components

2

Failing to breastfeed in the first 6 mos. of life resulted in _____ increase in diarrheal mortality.

8-10x

3

Bottle feeding was shown to increase the risk of _____.

otitis media
H. influenzae bacteremia and meningitis

4

Contraindications to Breastfeeding

galactosemia
illegal drugs
chemotherapy
radiopharmaceuticals

5

Active TB is a _____ contraindication to breastfeeding.

relative

6

Breastfeeding should be done after observed treatment with anti-Koch's therapy for _____.

2 weeks

7

HIV is a _____ contraindication to breastfeeding.

relative

8

_____ of expressed breastmilk from an HIV+ mother has been proven to be effective in killing the virus.

Heat Treatment

9

The WHO/UNICEF launched a 10-step program called _____ in _____.

The Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative
1992

10

The Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative

1. written breastfeeding policy
2. train health care staff
3. inform pregnant women of the benefits of BF
4. initiate BF within 30 min. after birth
5. initiate BF and maintain lactation
6. no food or drink other than breastmilk
7. rooming in
8. BF per demand
9. no artificial teats or pacifiers
10. support groups

11

RA No. 7600

The Rooming-In and Breastfeeding Act of 1992

12

Maternal employment is significantly associated with _____ of breastfeeding.

early cessation

13

Challenges to BF in the Workplace

lack of break time
inadequate facilities
lack of resources
lack of support

14

House Bill No. 6661

Breastfeeding Promotion Act
(February 5, 2004)

15

An Act Promoting Breastfeeding by Establishing and maintaining Lactation Stations in Workplaces for Working Mothers, Providing for Penalties for Violation thereof and for other purposes

Breastfeeding Promotion Act
House BIll No. 6661
February 5, 2004

16

The neural tube usually closes within the first _____ of life.

21-28 days

17

_____ is the most common major CNS malformation.

Anencephaly

18

Anencphaly is seen _____ more in females than in males.

37x

19

_____ of neural tube defects could be prevented with _____.

50-70%, folic acid

20

Women of childbearing age should be given _____ of folic acid to reduce the risk for neural tube defects.

0.4 mg (400 mcg) daily

21

RA No. 8976

The Philippine Food Fortification Act
(November 2000)

22

Newborn Screening began in _____ when _____ designed an assay for _____.

1961, Dr. Robert Guthrie, phenylketonuria (PKU)

23

Newborn Screening was introduced to the Philippines in _____.

1996

24

First Newborn Screening Components

PKU
CAH
Congenital Hypothyroidism
Galactosemia
Homocystinuria

25

Newborn Screening Components

PKU
CAH
Congenital Hypothyroidism
Galactosemia
G6PD (1998)
MSUD (2012)

26

Administrative Order No. 1-A s 2000

Policies on the Nationwide Implementation of Newborn Screening

27

_____ is the act requiring every newborn in the Philippines be offered NBS.

Newborn Screening Act of 2004

28

_____ is the most common IEM in the Philippines.

MSUD

29

The incidence of bilateral hearing loss is _____.

1-3 per 1000

30

Risk Factors for Hearing Loss
(birth - 28 days)

NICU admission ≥ 48 hours
syndromes
ear and craniofacial abnormalities
family history of sensorineural hearing loss
in utero infections

31

Risk Factors for Hearing Loss
(29 days - 2 years)

concern regarding hearing, speech, development
family history of childhood hearing loss
syndromes
postnatal infection
in utero infections
neonatal indicators
neurodegenerative disorders
head trauma
recurrent or persistent otitis media (3 mos.)

32

_____ is the 3rd leading cause of disability.

Hearing Impairment

33

Detection of hearing loss at _____ and intervention at _____ prevents or reduces its effects.

3 mos., 6 mos.

34

5 Elements of Universal Newborn Hearing Screening Program (UNHSP)

screening
tracking
follow-up
identification
intervention
evaluation

35

_____, _____ and _____ are among the leading causes of blindness among Filipinos.

poor nutrition, measles, premature birth

36

_____ deficiency is the leading cause of childhood blindness.

Vitamin A

37

Vitamin A capsules should be given to _____.

9-11 mo. infants
12-59 mo. children
sick and malnourished children

38

The WHO global initiative to eliminate avoidable blindness by 2020

Vision 2020: The Right to Sight
(1999, Geneva, Switzerland)

39

The AAP advocates eye examination at _____.

birth, all well child visits

40

The earliest possible age for visual acuity measurement is at _____.

3 y.o.

41

The act which requires all vehicles to be equipped with seat belts

The Seat Belts Use Act of 1999

42

In the 5-15 y.o. age group, _____ are the 3rd leading cause of mortality.

traffic crashes

43

_____ reduce the incidence of wheel locking and skidding.

Anti-Lock Brakes

44

The _____ located at the front of the car absorbs most of the impact energy in a collision.

crumple zone

45

_____ are designed to inflate during a crash in order to cushion the passenger at impact.

Airbags

46

_____ cushion the blow of a side impact.

Side-Impact Beams

47

_____ prevent the individual's head from snapping back in rear-end crashes.

Head Restraints

48

RA No. 8750

The Seat Belts Use Act of 1999

49

Children _____ of age are prohibited from occupying the front seat.

< 6 years

50

Specialized child seats are required for children weighing _____.

60 lbs.
(8 y.o.)

51

Built-in seat belts may be used for children _____.

> 8 y.o.

52

Risk Factors for Adolescent VC

lack of driving experience
risk-taking behavior
use of alcohol and drugs
low rate of seat belt use (33%)
lack of experience in night-time driving

53

In Metro Manila, _____ are the 3rd leading cause of motor vehicle injury.

jeepney crashes (6%)

54

In Metro Manila, _____ are the 4th leading cause of motor vehicle injury.

tricycle crashes (5%)

55

In Metro Manila, _____ account for 51% of all road injuries.

pedestrian injuries

56

The leading causes of pedestrian-vehicle collisions are _____.

pedestrians at roadsides
crossing violations

57

Traffic accidents are the 2nd most common type of accident in the _____ and _____ age groups

1-4 y.o., 5-12 y.o.

58

Pedestrian Safety Rules

1. cross only at corners
2. use crosswalks
3. follow the green light
4. cross with the walk sign
5. look all ways before crossing
6. watch for turning cars
7. never cross between parked cars
8. drivers can't see you
9. walk on the L side of the road facing traffic
10. use a flashlight or something retroreflective

59

A bicycle helmet can effectively reduce the occurrence of brain injury by _____.

63-88%

60

Helmets provide cyclists an equal level of protection from crashes involving _____.

motor vehicles (69%)
other causes (68%)

61

_____ is the leading cause of child injury death in the Philippines.

Drowning

62

Among Filipino children aged 1-4 y.o., accidents caused by submersion, suffocation and FB ranked _____ overall cause of mortality in 1998.

7th

63

_____ are the 5th leading cause of mortality in the Philippines in 1995.

Burns

64

_____ can increase the likelihood of burns.

absence of water supply
low salary
crowding

65

_____ is the leading mechanism causing burns.

Scalding

66

_____ causes 10% of the fire deaths worldwide.

Smoking

67

Fire Safety Measures:
Always have a _____ available in your house.

fire extinguisher

68

Fire Safety Measures:
Preventing Fire

inspect electrical wirings
circuits should not be overloaded
remove leaves and paper
don't store flammable liquids near the stove
don't use alcohol or gasoline to start a fire
put off all candles and lights before bed
do not place candles where they may be toppled over
lamps should not be placed near flammable objects
crush cigarette butts
don't smoke in bed
keep flammable materials from children

69

Fire Safety Measures:
When Fire is at Hand

call for help
stay close to the floor
put a wet cloth over your face
close the doors and windows behind you
feel the door before opening it
know the fire exits

70

Fire Safety Measures:
When Your Clothes Catch Fire

don't run
wrap yourself in a blanket
drop to the floor and roll over
stay close to the floor in a horizontal position
douse yourself with water

71

_____ is one of the oldest surgical procedures in the world.

Circumcision

72

In the Philippines, circumcision is largely determined by _____.

peer pressure
religious and cultural influences

73

More than _____ of Filipinos are circumcised.

90%

74

_____ is one of the most common chronic childhood diseases.

Early Childhood Caries

75

Early Childhood Caries is the presence of _____ in _____ in a child _____.

≥ 1 decayed, missing or filled tooth
any primary tooth
≤ 71 mos.

76

Filipino children have the _____ caries prevalence in the Western Pacific Region.

2nd highest

77

PPS recommends the use of _____ to prevent dental caries.

fluoride varnish

78

Postnatal exposure to second-hand smoke has been causally linked to _____.

SIDS

79

_____ students live in households with members who smoke.

6 in 10

80

_____ is the single most important location of cigarette smoke exposure.

Home

81

RA 9211

Tobacco Regulation Act of 2003

82

RA 8749

Philippine Clean Air Act of 1999

83

The Philippines is the _____ ranking country in SEA having the most smokers and the _____ ranking in most number of young smokers.

3rd, top

84

_____ of women smoke while pregnant.

12-22%

85

Effects of Maternal Smoking

spontaneous abortion
low birth weight
preterm delivery
SIDS
ADHD
idiopathic MR
behavioral problems

86

In the 10-14 y.o. age group, _____ ranks as the 4th leading cause of overall mortality with a death rate of _____.

injuries undetermined whether accidental or purposefully inflicted, 3.1 per 100,000

87

Media is taking a larger role as a _____ for many Filipino youths.

surrogate babysitter

88

Teenagers take _____ of broadcast media weekly.

30 hours

89

Effects of Media Exposure

violent behavior
high-risk behavior
tobacco use
early onset of sexual activity

90

Children _____ are developmentally unable to understand the difference between advertising and regular programming.

< 8 years

91

_____ creates misconceptions about the nutritional value of food and how to maintain good health.

Advertising

92

In the Philippines, _____ of young children and _____ of adolescents are overweight.

1% (0-10 y.o.)
3% (11-17 y.o.)

93

_____ is a key component to healthy living and provides many well-documented benefits to children.

Regular Physical Activity

94

_____ plays an important role in developing good exercise habits in children.

School

95

_____ is the 2nd leading cause of mortality among Filipino children.

Diarrhea

96

Diarrhea is closely associated with _____.

poverty
lack of safe water supply
poor hygiene

97

_____ has been the substantial source of municipal water.

Groundwater (45.5%)

98

_____ has been the most effective means for the disinfection of public water supply.

Chlorination

99

Disposal of _____ is a major health problem with _____ being common areas of disposal.

solid waste, open dumpsites

100

The average first coitus among Filipino adolescents is _____.

18 - males
18.3 - females

101

_____, rather than Abstinence Only Sex Education, is more effective in helping adolescents make healthy decisions regarding sex.

Comprehensive Sex Education

102

According to the 2002 Young Adolescent Fertility and Sexual Survey, _____ of youth already had premarital sex.

23%

103

_____ of adolescents do not use contraception.

74%

104

Adolescents contribute _____ to the overall fertility.

30%

105

4 Goals of Comprehensive Sex Education

1. Information
2. Attitudes, Values, and Insights
3. Relationships and Interpersonal Skills
4. Responsibility

106

Groups Addressed by Sex Education:
_____ are those who do not anticipate having sex in the next year.

Delayers

107

Groups Addressed by Sex Education:
_____ are those who anticipate initiating sex in the next year.

Anticipators

108

Groups Addressed by Sex Education:
_____ are those who have had 1 sexual partner.

Singles

109

Groups Addressed by Sex Education:
_____ are those who have had ≥ 2 partners.

Multiples

110

Retinal vascular development begins at _____.

15-18 weeks AOG

111

_____ are critical to the development of retinal vessels.

Undifferentiated Endothelial Cells

112

Exposure to _____ damages developing retinal vessels and temporarily arrests their development leading to _____ and _____.

stress, ischemia, avascularized periphery

113

Retinal vessels whose development has been arrested resumes development at _____.

30-34 weeks AOG

114

In ROP, the eye may become inflamed and hazy and exudates may form along the retinal vessels with engorgement and tortuosity of the _____.

posterior pole vessels (Plus Disease)

115

ROP Zones:
most posterior area, 2x the distance from the optic nerve head to the fovea

Zone 1

116

ROP Zones:
surrounds Zone 1 with the nasal ora serrata as its nasal border

Zone 2

117

ROP Zones:
the crescent that Zone 2 did not encompass temporally

Zone 3

118

ROP Stages:
demarcation line separating the avascular retina anteriorly from the vascularized retina posteriorly with abnormal branching of small vessels immediately posterior to this

Stage 1

119

ROP Stages:
intraretinal ridge - the demarcation line has increased in volume but this proliferative tissue remains intraretinal

Stage 2

120

ROP Stages:
ridge with extra-retinal fibrovascular proliferation

Stage 3

121

ROP Stages:
partial retinal detachment

Stage 4

122

The primary risk factor for developing ROP is _____ mainly because of _____.

prematurity, incomplete vascularization of the retina

123

_____ prevents the further progression of ROP by destroying the cells that may release angiogenic factors.

Cryotherapy

124

Findings in ROP

Myopia (80%)
Strabismus
Amblyopia

125

_____ is commonly prescribed in the treatment of strabismus and amblyopia.

Eye Patching

126

Pathogenesis of ROP

disruption in the arborisation of the retinal vasculature → hyperproliferation of retinal vessels

127

Risk Factors for ROP

↓ AOG, ↓ birth weight

128

ROP Screening should be done on infants with:

BW < 1500 g
< 32 weeks AOG
BW 1500-2000 g with unstable course

129

ROP Screening should be done at a minimum age of _____ or within _____, whichever come later.

4 weeks chronologic age
31-33 weeks PCA

130

_____ is the mainstay treatment of ROP.

Surgery

131

Good nutrition is linked to _____.

learning readiness
academic achievement
decreased discipline problems
decreased emotional problems

132

Unhealthy Foods

too salty
too sweet
too oily
too fatty

133

Non-nutritious foods do not contribute to nutrients that the body needs except _____.

empty calories

134

The Philippines ranked _____ in terms of worldwide soft drink consumption.

28th

135

Excessive consumption of soft drinks increases the risk for dental caries because of its _____.

acidity - ↑ dentin permeability and hypersensitivity

136

Children _____ are at greatest risk for home poisoning due to hand-to-mouth exploratory activities.

< 6 y.o.

137

_____ are effective in reducing death rate from poisoning.

Child-Safe Containers

138

Warning labels are considered _____ in reducing deaths due to child poisoning.

ineffective

139

The ready availability of _____ as commercial products has made poisoning from these substances among the most common non-accidental poisoning cases in the country.

acids and alkali

140

Top 3 Ingested Poison

1 - household cleaning agents
2 - hydrocarbon
3 - jathropa seeds

141

The 2 most importnant factors that led to the decrease of unintentional poisoing in the US have been _____

child-resistant closures
safer medications

142

_____ are among the most common poison exposures in children, 2nd to household products.

Pain Relievers

143

Approximately _____ of methylsalicylate can be lethal for a young child.

1-2 tsp (5-10 ml)

144

Toxic effects of iron poisoning occur at doses of _____.

10-20 mg/kg elemental iron

145

Isoniazid Toxicity:
Minimum Dose

1.5 g

146

Isoniazid Toxicity:
Seizures

30 mg/kg

147

Isoniazid Toxicity:
Fatal

80-150 mg/kg

148

_____ is a matchstick-like firework made of yellow phosphorus, potassium chlorate, potassium nitrate and trinitrotoluene.

Watusi

149

After ingestion of watusi, _____ should be given.

children - 4-6 egg whites
adults - 6-8 egg whites

150

Watusi Poisoning Symptoms

hypocalcemia
hypoprothrombinemia
metabolic acidosis
mucosal injury

151

Lead poisoning is defined as BLL of _____.

> 10 mg/dl

*1 venous specimen or 2 capillary specimen within 12 weeks of each other

152

Lead is absorbed through _____.

ingestion
inhalation

153

Up to 95% of absorbed lead is found in _____.

erythrocytes

154

Lead absorbed in _____ is responsible for bringing lead to the bones along with calcium.

plasma

155

Lead encephalopathy occurs at BLL of _____

> 70 mg/dl

156

_____ is the natural or induced production of genetically identical molecules, cells, tissues, plants or animals.

Cloning

157

_____ is also known as Recombinant DNA Technology or Molecular Cloning where a DNA fragment is transferred to a self-replicating genetic element (bacterial plasmid).

Gene Cloning

158

_____ is also known as Biomedical Cloning which sources cells from the embryo to produce tissue or whole organs.

Therapeutic Cloning

159

_____ is also known as Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer where the embryois allowed to develop to maturity. Chromosomal or genetic DNA is similar to the donor but the mitochondrial DNA is that of the enucleated cell.

Reproductive Cloning

160

Ethical Arguments in Human Reproductive Cloning

physical harm
research standards
autonomy
conflicts of interest
psychological or social harm
dignity
justice

161

_____ nations have laws which forbid reproductive cloning.

35

162

WHO: Orphan Disorders are conditions which affect _____.

< 1000 per 1M

163

There are _____ orphan disorders.

5000

164

Philippines: Orphan Disorders are conditions which affect _____.

1 in 20,000

165

Children should not carry backpacks weighing _____ and never _____.

> 10% of their body weight
4 in. below the waistline

166

Students carrying _____ of their body weight are more susceptible to low back pain.

> 10-20%

167

_____ are at a greater risk for developing low back pain from backpacks.

females
younger children

168

Carrying _____ of the body weight is too much to maintain standing posture in adolescents.

> 15%

169

Carrying _____ of the body weight is most effective at maintaining balance.

≤ 5%

170

Sucking satisfies both the nutritive and non-nutritive needs of a child, with greatest occurence at _____.

0-18 mos.

171

_____ are the most non-nutritive sucking materials used.

Pacifiers

172

Advantages of Pacifiers

soothes and calms
aids dentition
analgesia for preterm neonates
protective against SIDS

173

Adverse Effects of Pacifiers

shortened breastfeeding
poor latch-on technique
nipple confusion
altered dental arches
altered oral myofunctional structures
malocclusion
open bite
gastroenteritis
respiratory tract infection
otitis media
oral candida
asphyxia

174

Noise intensity is measured in _____, a logarithmic scale wherein a 10 _____ increase represents a 10-fold increase in noise intensity.

decibels

175

Community Noise is also called _____.

Residential Noise
Environmental Noise
Domestic Noise

176

Community Noise is the noise emitted from all sources except the _____.

industrial workplace

177

Safe Level of Community Noise

< 85 dB

178

_____ is the most prevalent and most damaging source of noise.

Street Traffic

179

Cars produce noise levels in the range of _____.

67-75 dB

180

Motorcycles produce noise levels in the range of _____.

72-83 dB

*can reach 120 dB

181

Tricycles produce noise at _____.

80 dB

182

Adverse Effects of Noise

impairment of functional capacity
impairment of the capacity to compensate for additional stress
increased susceptibility to harmful effects of other environmental influences

183

Non-Auditory Effects of Noise

stress
psychological effects
behavioral effects
safety concerns

184

Auditory Effects of Noise

acoustic trauma
hearing impairment

185

_____ is the increase in the threshold of hearing characterized as having ringing or buzzing sounds in the ear.

Hearing Impairment

186

Hearing loss occurs at _____ first.

higher frequencies

187

_____ is the most common effect of noise on people.

Annoyance

188

Noise level exposure of _____ is the maximum set point at which adverse effects can result.

85 dB

189

_____ is the noise present in the workplace.

Occupational Noise

190

Occupational Noise:
noise whose sound level peaks are ≤ 1 sec. apart

Continuous Type

191

Occupational Noise:
has a steep rise in sound level to a high peak followed by rapid decay with peaks > 1 sec. apart

Impulsive Type

192

WHO Recommended Exposure Limit (REL) for Continuous Noise in the Workplace

80-85 dB x 8 hours

193

WHO Recommended Exposure Limit (REL) for Impulsive Noise in the Workplace

140 dB at any one exposure

194

Effects of Excessive Occupational Noise

increased risk for coronary heart disease
hypertension
vibroacoustic disease → airway aggression
cognitive impairment
deficits in performance, attentiveness and problem-solving skills
nervousness
aggression
annoyance
work-related injuries
noise-induced hearing loss

195

_____ accounts for > 16% of disabling hearing loss worldwide.

Occupational Noise

196

_____ is the precursor to noise-induced hearing loss which is defined as change in hearing threshold of 10 dB or more at 2000-4000 Hz in either ear.

Transient Threshold Shifts

197

DOH has set a permissible noise level of _____.

90 dB x 8 hours

198

_____ is the noise derived from leisure activities, many of which are musical in origin.

Recreational Noise

199

Determining Factors of the Extent of Noise-Induced Hearing Loss

type of noise
duration of exposure
intensity
type of noise environment
distance from source
physical position
individual suscceptibility
general health
number of other exposures to noise and other ototoxic agents

200

When using a portable music player, the sound is too loud when _____.

the volume is > 60% of the maximum
one cannot hear conversations
people nearby can hear one's music
shouting when talking to other people

201

Set the sound level no more than _____ of the maximum volume for no more than _____.

60%, 30 min./day

202

For neonates, the maximum average Day-Night Sound Level (DNL) is _____.

55 dB - waking hours
45 dB - nighttime

203

For neonates in hospitals, the maximum average Day-Night Sound Level (DNL) is _____.

45 dB - waking hours
35 dB - nighttime

204

At around the _____, the fetus can already perceive, store, and react to auditory information.

23-26 weeks AOG

205

The _____ is one of the last systems to develop and is more vulnerable to insults than other older systems.

Auditory System

206

_____ hearing develops later and is therefore more vulnerable.

High-Frequency

207

The _____ is the target organ of noise.

Cochlea

208

Sound in the environment travels to reach the fetus through _____.

bone conduction

209

Effects of Noise > 85-90 dB in Pregnant Women

birth defects
low birth weight
IUGR
prematurity
SGA
fetal death
atypical brain development
high freqency hearing loss

210

Effects of Noise on Infants in the NICU

increased HR, RR, BP and ICP
decreased oxygenation
annoyance
confusion
lack of adequate and peaceful sleep

211

Use of CPAP results in damage to the _____ because noise is amplified inside the incubator.

cochlea

212

DOH encourages the use of _____ as alternatives to firecrackers and attending _____ rather than personal use of fireworks.

noise-making devices
public fireworks displays

213

The obesity epidemic is said to be caused by _____

consumption of high energy and high fat foods
reduced physical activity
increasing urbanization
economic growth
modernization
globalization of food markets

214

_____ was more prevalent in public schools while _____ was more prevalent in private schools.

undernutrition - public
overnutrition - private

215

The foods that have been forbidden in childhood may be _____ when the child finally has access to them later on.

overconsumed

216

A large fast food meal could contain _____ which would require an entire marathon to burn off.

2200 kcal

217

The most common leisure activities of Filipino children aged 8-10 y.o. are _____.

playing computer games
reading
watching television

218

Being severely overweight in children is associated with _____.

pseudotumor cerebri
slipped capital femoral epiphysis
steatohepatitis
cholelithiasis
sleep apnea

219

The most significant morbidities for overweight children and adolescents are _____.

psychosocial

220

Children have a right to _____.

life
adequate standard of living
parental care and uspport
social security
a name, nationality and identity
information
leisure
recreation
cultural activities
opinion
freedom of thought
conscience
religion
freedom of association
privacy

221

An estimated_____ children around the world engage in child labor with at least _____ working in agriculture.

246 million, 70%

222

_____ are the most common workplace hazards.

Physical Environment Hazards

223

Physical Hazards

temperature or humidity (most common)
slip/trip fall hazards
noise
radiation
ultraviolet
microwave
pressure

224

RA No. 9231

Anti Child Labor Law

225

Anti Child Labor Law Features

1. prohibit the worst forms of child labor
2. provides for the working hours of children 15-18 y.o.
3. ownership, usage and administration of the income
4. trust fund for the child
5. stiffer penalties
6. speedy prosecution

226

Worst Forms of Child Labor

slavery (Anti-Trafficking in Persons Act of 2003)
prostitution
pornography
illegal activities
hazards to the health, safety and morals of a child

227

The minimum employable age is the Philippines is _____.

15 y.o.

228

Children below 15 y.o. are not permitted to work unless _____.

they work directly under their parents
they can go to school
the child's life, safety, health, morals and development are not endangered

229

Children < 15 y.o. are not allowed to work more than _____.

4 hours/day, 5 days/week

230

Children 15-18 y.o. are not allowed to work more than _____.

8 hours/day

231

Not more than _____ of the child's income may be used for the collective needs of the family.

20%

232

A trust fund must be set up with at least _____ of the child's wages whose earnings amount to at least P200,000 anually.

30%

233

Anti Child Labor Law Penalties

P10,000 - P100,000 fine
30 days - 1 year community service

234

Child Labor Definition

economic exploitation
likely hazardous
interferes with education
harmful to the child's health or physical, mental, spiritual, moral or social development

235

Walker-experienced infants scored _____ on Bayley scales of mental and motor development.

lower

236

Walker-experienced infants had _____ Denver Developmental Screening Test Results.

abnormal

237

Inside a walker, the speed of the infant can reach up to _____.

3 feet/sec.

238

Infants riding a walker may be more prone to burns and poisonings due to _____.

increased access to the kitchen and other dangerous areas

239

Minor Injuries from Walkers

pinch injuries
abrasions
contusions
lacerations
fractures
soft tissue injuries

240

_____ is the most widely consumed psychoactive substance with 120,000 tons of it consumed anually.

Caffeine

241

Caffeine is a _____ and its effects are mediated through its action on the _____.

xanthine derivative, cerebral cortex and brainstem

242

At doses of _____, caffeine may increase alertness and wakefulness, faster and clearer flow of thought, better general body coordination, loss of fine motor control and dizziness

100-200mg

243

At doses of _____, caffeine can cause restlessness, anxiety, irritability, tremors, sleeplessness, headaches, nausea, diarrhea and abnormal cardiac rhythms.

500-600mg

244

Caffeine Poisoning Symptoms

alternating tension-relaxation of muscles
rapid deep breathing
nausea
vomiting
rapid HR
shock
tremors

245

Maximum Caffeine Intake

4-6 y.o. - 45 mg/day
7-9 y.o. - 62.5 mg/day
10-12 y.o. - 85 mg/day

246

_____ has the highest caffeine content among soft drinks.

Mountain Dew (55 mg/12 oz.)

247

_____ has the highest caffeine content among coffee preparations.

drip brewed coffee (135 mg/8 oz.)

248

The Magna Carta of Students requires that school authorities endeavor to provide _____ to students.

free annual physical check-ups

249

Purpose of Annual Check-Ups

identify the high-risk population
fulfill a public health service role

250

The elements of the medical interview and physical examination prior to issuing a medical certificate are _____.

medical history
immunization status
language, social and adaptive development
height and weight
BP and HR
full physical examination
fine and gross motor development

251

_____ is the major methodology in minimizing surgical complications.

Pre-Operative Risk Assessment and Evaluation

252

Pre-operative evaluation is a must for all _____.

surgical procedures
medical testing requiring anesthesia

253

All patients undergoing a procedure must undergo pre-operative assessment except for _____.

healthy patients requiring nerve blocks, local or topical anesthesia, no more than 50% nitrogen oxide, oxygen and no other sedative or analgesic agents

sedation analgesia or conscious sedation

254

The greatest risk in pediatric surgeries are _____.

pulmonary and airway complications

255

High-risk surgical patients are categorized into _____.

cardiovascular risk
non-cardiovascular risk

256

_____ is the most important component of the pre-operative evaluation.

Medical History

257

Physical examination for pre-operative evaluation must include _____.

anthropometrics
full min. HR and RR at sleep

258

Abnormal findings elicited from pre-operative medical history and PE may require _____.

further evaluation
laboratory examination

259

Routine Pre-Operative Labs

CBC with Hct, diff. ct. an PC
CXR PAL

260

_____, more commonly known as a preparticipation physical evaluation or athletic screening is often asked of an individual who will indulge in sports activities.

Sports Clearance

261

Objectives of Sports Clearance

detect medical or musculoskeletal conditions
detect potentially life-threatening or disabling conditions
determine general health
assess fitness level and appropriateness for the sport
counsel and educate children in health related issues

262

_____ is the leading cause of sports related sudden death in the US.

Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy

263

Cardiovascular History for Athletes

exertional chest pain or discomfort
syncope or near-syncope
shortness of breath
exercise-induced fatigue
murmur
hypertension
hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
dilated cardiomyopathy
long QT syndrome
Marfan syndrome
arrhythmias
family history of premature death or significant disability from cardiovascular disease (< 50 y.o.)