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Flashcards in practice 6 Deck (38):
1

How do you calculate a patient's ABCD2 score for a TIA

Age ≥ 60 years +1
BP ≥ 140/90 mmHg +1 (Initial blood pressure reading. Either SBP ≥ 140 or DBP ≥ 90)
Clinical Features of the TIA- Unilateral Weakness +2, Speech Disturbance without Weakness +1, Other Symptoms= 0
Duration of Symptoms- <10 Minutes= 0, 10-59 Minutes+1, ≥ 60 Minutes+2
History of Diabetes +1

2

what is the thyrocervical trunk a branch of

1st part of the subclavian artery

3

what are the branches of the thyrocervical trunk

the inferior thyroid artery, transverse cervical artery and suprascapular artery

4

what is the costocervical artery a branch of

2nd part of subclavian

5

How is Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy inherited

mitochondria

6

Which muscle does the submandibular gland wrap around?

Mylohyoid

7

what antidepressant can cause QT elongation

citalopram (an SSRI)

8

what are some side effects of glucocorticoid treatment

cushings
irregular menstruation
osteoporosis
weight gain

9

what hypoglycaemic can cause flatulence

acarbose

10

what hormone is secreted by parafollicular cells in the thyroid

calcitonin

11

what is calcitriol

vitamin D

12

what secretes TSH

anterior pituitary gland

13

where is thyroxine secreted

follicular cells in the thyroid

14

which thyroid hormone is considered a prohormone

T4 which is metabolised to T3

15

what level is defined as hypoglycaemia

2.2

16

which hypoglycaemic functions to increase gene transcription of insulin genes

ploglitazone

17

when is cortisol normally elevated

7-9 am

18

why is mineralocorticoid excess associated with decreased potassium

mineralocorticoids increase sodium reabsorption and decrease potassium reabsorption

19

what factor is responsible for activating macrophages

interferon gamma

20

how many years of life are lost in women with a bmi of 30 compared to 25

7

21

which of the following factors is linked to ankylosing spondilits

HLA-B27

22

what enzyme metabolises adrenaline

monoamine oxidase

23

what is lispro

short acting insulin

24

which first line hypoglycaemic also encourages weight loss

metformin

25

which hypoglycaemic mimic glucagon like peptide

exanitide

26

which ions are the major constituents of intracellular fluid

sodium and phosphate

27

what are the features of cushings syndrome

hypertension
hyperglycaemia
skin pigmentation
wasting of proximal limb muscles
increased appetite
increased proteolysis
bone demineralisation
abnormal collagen (striae)
increased red cell count

28

what is the most common cause of cushings

long term use of synthetic glucocorticoids


less common is a ACTH secreting tumour (ectopic or pituitary)
or an adrenal tumour

29

what proportion of those age 75-80 have two or more long term conditions

20-25%

30

what is the most common cause of addisons in the uk

autoimmune adrenalitis
cells in the cortex are destroyed which limits the production of steroid hormones (aldosterone and cortisol)

31

how can TB cause Addison's disease

caseating necrosis of the adrenals

32

what is hereditary haemochromatosis

excess ion accumulates in organs

33

what would expect to see with someone who has primary hypothyroidism

high TSH and low thyroid hormones

34

what disease would cause elevated calcium levels

hyperparathyroidism

35

what is somatropin

a growth hormone

36

how is GH regulated

inhibition of GH secretion is induced by somatostatin
also negative feedback from GH

37

what affect does somatostatin have on glucagon

inhibits glucagon release

38

how does dopamine affect the hypothalamus

inhibits synthesis and release of prolactin