Flashcards in Practice Exam Questions Deck (81):
Indicate which of the following are true:
a. Microtubules possess great tensile strength that enables axons to withstand
b. The initial segment and nodes of Ranvier are enormously enriched in delayed
rectifier potassium channels.
c. The speed of slow axonal transport is only one order of magnitude faster than
d. Presynaptic proteins are often synthesized in the axonal terminal, while dendritic
proteins are exclusively made in the soma.
e. Dendritic spines are generally thought to constitute the site of long-term, stable
memory in CNS neurons.
ANSWERS: A, C, E
Which processes contribute importantly to the resting membrane potential?
a. Na-K ATPase pump
b. K+ going through voltage-gated K+ channels
c. K+ going through inward-rectifying K+ channels d. Small negatively charged molecules inside the cell
ANSWERS: A, C
List the four types of retinal neurons other than photoreceptor cells.
Which part of the brain controls eating, drinking, body temperature and provides a link between the brain and the endocrine system?
A. Parietal lobes
B. Temporal lobes
_________scan measures brain activitry through injecting a radioactive glucose that allows to observe the brain is functioning.
_____ neurons carry sensory information through afferent nerves in the peripheral nervous system where ______ travel within the central nervous system ______ neurons travel back through the efferent nerves in the peripheral nervous system allowing a response or movement.
_________ connects the left and right hemisphere.
E. Corpus Callosum
Multiple scelrosis could disintegrate a neuron's __________, which ultimately could affect the speed of a neural impulse.
C. Myelin Sheath
E. Nodes of Ranvier
Which part of the brain controls balance and coordinates movements?
C. Reticulare Formation
A message From another neurons causes the inside of the recieving neuron to become positive as sodium ions start to enter leading to an action potential. The process is referred to as
C. All-or-none response
E. Synaptic discharge
_______ lobes control vision; ______ lobes control audition or hearing.
Which lobe is connected with thinking, planning and emotional control?
A person's broca's area on his left hemisphere was affected when he experienced a stroke. What ability could be affected?
A. Understanding what others say
B. Being able to speak
C. Being able to touch his nose
______ is a drug designed to mimic a neurotransmitter; whereas _______ drugs block the function of a neurotransmitter from occuring.
Which part of a neuron recieves information from other neurons?
C. Myelin sheath
D. Axon terminals
________ is a relay for all sensory information exclusing________
The endocrine system is comprised of _______ that circulate in the bloodstream.
Which nervous sytem consists of the brain and the spinal cord?
A. Central nervous system
B. Peripheral nervous sytem
C. Sympathetic nervous system
D. Somatic nervous system
E. Autonomic nervous system
What state does a neuron have to be in order for an action potential to occur?
B. Resting potential
D. -50 charge
E. Postsynaptic state
_____ coordinates movements on the left side and right side of the body as well as dreams, _____ controls heartbeat and breathing, and _____ controls wakefulness and arousal.
A. Pons;medulla;reticular formation
B. Medulla;pons;reticular formation
C. Hippocampus;hypothalamus;reticular formation
______ nervous system, which is part of the peripheral nervous system, controls voluntary bodily movements.
Sensory neurons travel through ______ nerves and motor neurons travel through _____ nerves
What is a chemical messenger that travels through gaps or synapses between neurons?
B. Dendritic neuron
C. Axonic neuron
E. Efferent neuron
That part of the nervous system that is voluntary and conducts impulses from the CNS to the skeletal muscles is the ________ nervous system.
The gap between Schwann cells in the peripheral system is called a(n) ________.
node of Ranvier
________ potentials are short-lived, local changes in membrane potential that can be either depolarized or hyperpolarized.
The parasympathetic division uses only ________ as a neurotransmitter in the postganglionic neurons.
Imagine a neuron that has several hundred axonal knobs impinging on it. The majority of these axonal knobs are shown to be "firing." However, the neuron in question does not transmit an impulse. Give a valid explanation of why this could occur.
Both excitatory and inhibitory potentials impinge on neurons. Inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (IPSPs) are "firing," but due to the neurotransmitter released and its action, the postsynaptic neuron is inhibited from "firing" (hyperpolarized).
What is the benefit of having the nerve supply of the diaphragm, which is located in the thoracic-lumbar area of the spinal cord, arise from cervical nerves?
The fact that the phrenic nerve originates so high in the spinal cord reduces the likelihood of spinal damage above the phrenic origin, thereby reducing the possibility that a spinal injury would stop the diaphragm from working.
How does accommodation of muscle spindles figure in the importance of stretch routines as a warm-up for exercise?
Initially, as muscle spindles are stretched, the reflex sends impulses back to contract the muscle. With prolonged stretching, accommodation decreases the vigor of the stretch reflex somewhat, and the muscle can relax and stretch more, reducing the risk of tearing muscle tissue during exercise.
How is hypertension (high blood pressure) related to the ANS?
The ANS is involved with nearly every process that goes on within the body. Since it controls smooth muscle activity, the heart, and blood vessel constriction, it is not surprising that hypertension and ANS activity are related. Overproduction of adrenergic responses for extended periods keeps vessels constricted and heart rate and force of contraction high. This can lead to hypertension that is often stress related and can be treated with adrenergic blocking agents.
Which statement is true?
a.Stimulus strength is encoded by action potential amplitude.
b.Stimulus strength is encoded by action potential frequency.
c.Receptor potentials are essentially the same as inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (IPSPs).
d. Subthreshold receptor potentials become generator potentials.
Which of the following is not a result of parasympathetic stimulation?
b.dilation of the pupils
c.increased peristalsis of the digestive viscera
d.relaxation of the urethral sphincter
Axonal terminals at the neuromuscular junction
a.contain synaptic vesicles filled with ACh.
b.contain one bouton for each motor end plate.
c.release mitochondria into the synaptic cleft.
d.are stimulated to release their neurotransmitter by inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (IPSPs).
Which of the following are support cells in the central nervous system
Which of the following neurotransmitters is involved in inflammation
The role of acetylcholinesterase is to
a. act as a transmitting agent.
b. destroy ACh a brief period after its release by the axonal endings.
c. amplify or enhance the effect of ACh.
d. stimulate the production of serotonin.
An excitatory neurotransmitter secreted by motor neurons innervating skeletal muscle is
a. gamma aminobutyric acid.
a. mediate very slow responses.
b. open ion channels to provoke rapid responses.
c. act through second messengers.
d.require cyclic AMP.
True or False
Efferent nerve fibers may be described as motor nerve fibers.
True or False
During depolarization, the inside of the neuron's membrane becomes less negative.
True or False
Neurons do not undergo mitosis in any part of an adult human.
True or False
Endorphins are peptides that act like morphine.
True or False
Temporal summation occurs when the postsynaptic neuron is being stimulated by a large number of terminals from the same or different neurons at the same time.
True or False
The parasympathetic division is a branch of the somatic nervous system.
True or False
Neurotransmitters can be removed from the synapse by enzymes.
True or False
When a neuron depolarizes, its membrane potential moves from -70 toward -90.
True of False
The space between the axon terminal of one neuron and the dendrite of another is called the neural gap.
What is the most common type of neuron in the brain?
During development the hollow interior of the nervous system develops into what?
In the spinal chord what does the white matter consist of?
It consists of BOTH sensory and motor tracts
The brain and the spinal chord are wrapped in protective membranes known collectively as what?
A disease that selectively destroys myelin is called what?
What is alexia?
Inability to read
Bending inner hair cells cause what?
Opening of Na+ channels
In most people, where is the Wernicke's area found?
Left temporal lobe
Which of the following is not a characteristic of Broca's aphasia?
The primary auditory cortex receives input directly from ______.
the medical geniculate nucleus
The bodes of the hair cells are_________.
embedded in the basilar membrane
What is agraphia?
Inability to write
Which skin receptors are sensitive to stretching of the skin?
Vibration, proprioception, and light touch are processed in what ascending neural pathway?
Dorsal column medial lemniscus
What was the most striking impairment suffered by H.M.?
Fast adapting tactile receptors that mediate most of our ability to perceive form are known as was?
Painful events are detected by what?
Free nerve endings
Declarative memory is said to deal with the ________.
Lyndsey smith shoots free throws so well because she has rehearsed the shot many times with her eyes closed. This rehearsal activates mirror neurons in what part of her brain?
The "tympanic reflex" involves
A. contraction of the middle ear muscles to protect the cochlea from damage due to loud sounds
B. contraction of the middle ear muscles to increase sensitivity of the cochlea to soft sounds
C. activation of the efferent fibers to inner hair cells to protect the cells from damage due to loud sounds
D. activation of the efferent fibers to inner hair cells to increase the sensitivity of the cells to soft sounds
E. contraction of the neck muscle to orient the head in the direction of the sound source
A patient cannot hear a tuning fork when it is placed just outside the right ear but he can hear the tuning fork when its base is placed on the right mastoid process (bone). Which of the following is a possible explanation of this finding?
A. infection and inflammation of the middle ear on the right side (otitis media)
B. a lesion of the cochlear branch of the right VIIIth cranial nerve
C. a lesion of the left medial geniculate nucleus
D. all of the above
A person with degeneration of inner hair cells lying about half way along the cochlea would be expected to have difficulty
A. hearing high pitched tones
B. hearing low pitched tones
C. understanding human speech
D. maintaining his balance when standing in a TriMet bus
E. none of the above, since the inner hair cells have no known function
Bending of the cilia on the inner hair cells in the direction of the stria vascularis leads to all of the following except
A. influx of sodium ion
B. influx of potassium ion
C. influx of calcium ion
D. depolarization of the cell
E. release of neurotransmitter by the cell
The cell bodies of the cells whose axons synapse in the medial geniculate nucleus are located in the
A. cochlear nucleus
B. olivary complex
C. inferior colliculus
D. lateral lemniscus nucleus
E. spiral ganglion
Connections between the left and right superior olivary nuclei serve the function of
A. pitch discrimination
B. sound source localization
C. separating meaningful sounds from background noise
D. lateral inhibition to increase contrast between loud and soft sounds
E. modulating the excitability of the auditory pathway
The primary auditory cortex can be best described as organized by
A. sound intensity
B. sound duration
C. sound frequency
D. sound pattern (a combination of A, B, and C)
E. sound source direction by comparing of input from the dominant ear with the non-dominant ear
C or D
The primary submodalities for olfaction include which of the following?
D. all of the above
E. none of the above, since there are no primary submodalities for olfaction
The cell bodies for first cranial nerve (C.N. I) are located in the
A. olfactory epithelium
B. olfactory bulb
C. olfactory tract
D. olfactory cortex (pyriform cortex)
E. anterior commissure
Which of the following sensory modalities can elicit sensation without passing through a thalamic synapse?
D. smell (olfaction)
E. none of the above, since the thalamus is essential for eliciting sensation
The adequate stimulus for the sensation "sour" is
A. inorganic acids
B. both inorganic and organic acids
C. salts of organic acids, such as sodium citrate or potassium acetate
D. breakdown products produced by oral digestion of carbohydrates by salivary amylase
E. several types of organic substances with no special structural resemblance
All of the following are involved in the taste projection pathway except
A. cranial nerves VII, IX, and X
B. solitary nucleus
C. VPM of the thalamus
D. entorhinal cortex
E. somatosensory cortex
Which structure is NOT associated with the organ of Corti? [
A) Tympanic membrane.
B) Inner hair cells.
C) Tectorial membrane.
D) Outer hair cells.
E) Basilar membrane.