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Flashcards in Practice Test One Deck (103):
1

murmurs of endocarditis

mitral/tricuspid regurg which are holosystolic

2

most common cause of mitral stenosis and presenting symptoms

rheumatic fever (past). mid-diastolic murmur.

3

Peutz-Heghers syndrome

autosomal dominant disease due to kinase STK11. have pigmented skin lessons near mouth/hands/feet and abdominal pain from GI polyps

4

lipoma vs liposarcoma

nuclear abnomralities like "scalloping" and pleotropy

5

easily ruptured blisters which heal completely

must be above basal layer of epidermis (pemphigus vulgaris)

6

which pneumocytes secrete surfactant?

type 2 pneumocytes

7

most common cause of horners?

pancoast tumor pressing on sympathetic trunk

8

how to get turners syndrome patient preggo

IVF. they have streak ovaries so GnRH dn't do shit

9

Diabetes inspidious in psyc patient

can be caused by Li mood stabalizers. So nephrogenic not central. can be called "renal tubular dysfunction"

10

sudden death in young atheles during excercise with heart murmos

hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. coronary arteries are normal but heart is big.

11

biventricular dilation occurs in

dialted cardiomyopathy not hypertrophic

12

when does the second heart sound occur?

when aortic pressure becomes > than LV pressure. NOT when LA > LV (that is when filling happens during diastoli

13

special consideration for IgA deficent patients with transfusions

they produce anti-IgA

14

what does DNA pol I do?

replaces primers of replication with DNA

15

ovarian cancer can cause ascities. got it?

good

16

ovarian cancer marker?

ca 125

17

drug cocktail given for transplant

calcineurin inhibitor (cyclosporine, tacrolimus, sirolimus), glucocorticoid (prednisone) and purine synthesis inhibitor (azothioprine or mycophenolate mofetil)

18

cyclosporine famously damages what?

kidneys

19

Metoclopramide should be avoided in

parkinsonians

20

what happens to electrolytes during ischemia?

K out, Na in

21

juxtaglomerulous cells release

renin (macula densa signals to them)

22

female athlete triad

disordered eating, amenorrhea and osteoporosis (central hypoestrogenism)

23

Familial hypercholesterolemia genetics

autosomal dominant. LDL receptor. So can't clear LDL (and cholestrol as well). Xanthomas

24

where does the pancreas sit on CT?

anterior to the IVC and aorta at L2 kinda right beside/infront of the right kidney

25

where can DNA pol add bases?

3' hydroxyl

26

why give heparin instead of warfarin during pregnancy?

cause heparin is water soluble so it can't cross placenta while warfarin can

27

STD with purulent penile discharge, burning pee, gram negative

Neisseria gonorrhoeae

28

gram neg, kidney bene shaped, diplococci within white blood cells

N. gonorrhoeae

29

how does gonorrhoeae adhere and what properties does that have?

use pili. pili have phase variation (turn on and off) and antigenic variation

30

what is it called when two viruses infect the same cell and they swap material allowing for species mixing of viruses?

genetic reassortment

31

what happens if glycolysis is impared?

neonatal death

32

what is McArdle (glycogen storage disease type V)

no myophophorylase (muscle glycogen phosphorylase) which breaks down glycogen for glucose in muscle. results in exercise intolerance

33

pathophys of graves ophthalmopathy

lymphocytes invade and release cytokines which cause GAG production by fibroblasts

34

jugular venous tracing order

first (a) wave is right atrial contract, next (c) wave is bulge of tricuspid during R vent contract, downslop (x) is right atria relax, second wave (v) wave is continued inflow while pressure builds and then y downslope when atria starts emptying

35

features of teratology of the fallot

1: pulm stenosis
2: right vent hypertrophy
3: overriding aorta
4: ventricular septal defect

36

the CAAT and TATA box promote what?

transcription

37

what vitamin def mimics Ehlers-Danlos syndrome?

vitamin C

38

what does vitamin C def cause?

hypermobile joints, extensible skin, collagen defects, bruising and hemorrhage (vessels break easy)

39

what makes hepatic nodules in cirrhosis?

the nodules are actually hepatocytes while lined with fibroblasts.

40

soft, compressible mass that transilluminates in the head/neck? associated with what?

cystic hygroma (lymphatic malformation). due to chromosomal aneuploidy

41

lactose intolerance is due to what molecular changes?

decreased expression of lactase

42

radiation to neck/head causes what risk?

thyroid cancer. thyroid is super sensitive to radiation

43

inappropriate and increased sexual activity, oral fixation, hyperphagia, visual agnosia, aphasia, flat emotions. disease name and cause (brain lesion)

Kluver-Bucy syndrome due to destruction of amygdala (sometimes due to HSV). located under the basal ganglia but more lateral (underside/medial parts of temporal lobes)

44

cyclosporin mechanism

binds cyclophin which together inhibit calcineurin thus no calcium-dependent genes expressed including many cytokines. in particular IL-2 is not transcribed

45

what is tardive dyskinesia

involuntary movment disorder including lipsmacking and tongue protrusions after years of antipsychotics (antidopamines). upregulation of dopamine receptors.

46

what does dopamine hydroxylase make and what is that important for?

norepinephrine. first signs will be orthostatic hypotension. NE is in sympathetic postganglionic neurons (horners shit too).

47

advantage of inactivated polio vaccine over oral form?

doesn't revert to virulent form

48

headache, puffy face, enlarged neck veins, shoulder pain, in chronic smoker

SVC syndrome

49

CT at the root of the aorta, where is the SVC?

just below and to the left of aorta (big one on top).

50

nerve which will be damaged with midshaft humerus fracture and subsequent defect?

radial nerve and wrist extension problems with tricep sparing cause the nerves for that have already left radial nerve

51

round eosinophilic inclusions in hipoocampal neurons with muscle contractions and death

rabies (Negri bodies)

52

orthostatic hydrostatic response is due to?

alpha1-adrenergic

53

how is aminoglycocide resistance gained?

1: poor drug penetrance (requires active transport)
2: mutations to 30S ribosome
3: enzymatic degradation

54

orlistat

inhibits intestinal lipase to help fatties lose weight

55

what connects the rectum to the liver (cause lord knows thats important)

inferior mesenteric vein

56

what secondary molecule is induced by insulin in the liver?

Fructose-2,6-bisphosphate via PFK2 induction

57

cavernous sinus contains?

internal carotid, CN 3/4/6 and trigem (V2/3). also is the only sinus which recieves blood from facial veins.

58

VSD vs teratology of fallot obvious physical difference

VSD doesn't turn blue. ToF does especially during exertion

59

parasite that is prevalent in the homosexual community which causes diarrhea?

Entamoeba histolytica cause of anal sex (well oral-anal...)

60

hormones that are produced after oral glucose but not IV

Incretins: Glucagon-like peptide 1, Gastric Inhibitory Peptide. They stimulated insulin release.

61

hypertensive drug that may cause potter sequence and renal agenisis?

ACE inhibitors

62

how do statins change HDL, LDL, and Tri?

inhibit chol synth causing increased hepatic LDL-R (uptake more)

63

ApoB synth locations

this LDL/VLDL component is made full length ApoB100 in liver and truncated ApoB48 in intestine

64

Chlamydia treatment

protein synthesis inhibitor azithromycin (single dose)

65

probenecid

inhibits renal excretion of penicillin and cephalosporin

66

cilastatin

given to prolong imipenem by inhibiting hydrolysis in kidney

67

tetracyclin teratogen

yellows teeth and deposits in the bone. it associates with Ca and is codeposited in fetus

68

disease caused by loss of pyrimidine dimer fixing mechanism ?

xeroderma pigmentosum

69

how does cirrhosis effect estrogen and effects?

increases estrogen due to lower degradation. effects include spider angioma, palamar erythema, gynecomastia, testicular atrophy, and decrease body hair

70

neurofibromatosis type I findings

neurofibromas, pigmented lesions (schwann cell freckles in axilla, cafe-au-lait spots), pigmented iris hamartomas

71

percent within 1, 2, 3 SD of the mean?

68, 95, 99.7

72

what happened to atretic follicles?

they underwent apoptosis

73

what does proline hydroxylation do to collagen

stabalize the triple helix

74

uncal herniation results in?

CN3 compression

75

older women with compression fracture

low estrogen due to menopause (ovary)

76

first step in heme synthesis?

glycine and succinyl-CoA combined to make ALA

77

effect of ACE inhibitor on renin?

increases it

78

HIV diarrhea: multiple ulcers &mucosal erosions, large cells with basophilic intranuclear inclusions

cytomegalovirus

79

HIV diarrhea: nonulcerative inflammation, basophilic clusters on surface of mucosal cells

cryptosporidium

80

HIV diarrhea: distortion of villus architecture w/o inflammation. small spores with equatorial belt like structure

microsporidium

81

HIV diarrhea: granulomas, acid fast bacilli

mycobacterium avium complex

82

what does gp41 do in HIV?

membrane fusion

83

VHL cancers

cerebellar/retinal hemangioblastomas, renal clear cell carcinoma, pheo

84

where in the eye is copper deposited in Wilson's disease?

cornea

85

vascular tethering of white cells uses what proteins?

selectin and ICAM

86

what generates the respiratory burst of the neutrophils?

NADPH oxidase (it makes superoxide ions)

87

fibroadenoma vs cystic change

fibroadenoma is the most common benign breast tumor and is well demarcated and small and changes with menstrual cycle. Meanwhile cystic change is the most common cause of palpable masses, however they change all of the breasts firmness and are painful and less defined

88

hyperchromic nests on skin

melanocytic nevus

89

two drugs which act on GABA channels?

benzodiazepines and barbiturates

90

flumazenil inhibits the actions of what drug class?

benzodiazepines

91

besides the mamillary bodies, what does alcohol break down in the brains?

cerebellar purkinje neurons, giving rise to the wobbliness of long time alcoholics

92

what embryonic structure is the cerebellum derived from?

rhombencephalon

93

what do leucine zippers do?

bind DNA

94

Reed-sternberg (big ass bilobed cell)

Hodgkin's lymphoma

95

what does phospholipase C do after G protein signalling?

cleaves phospholipid to produce IP3 and DAG. IP3 stims Ca release from ER which together with DAG stimulate PKCs.

96

alcoholic heart problem

alcoholic dialated cardiomyopathy

97

what drug hits the mycolic acid found in acid-fast organisms?

Isoniazid

98

vaginal bleeding plus high beta-hCG weeks after birth

choriocarcinoma

99

how do retinoids (isotretinoin) work?

bind RA-receptor and RXR to prevent transcription. this calms down sebum production (used in acne)

100

perforates diaphram at T10

vagus and esophagus

101

hexokinase or glucokinase in the liver/pancreas?

glucokinase

102

osteomyelitis in adults, children, and sickle cell

adults: gonnarrhea
children: S aureus
sickle cell: Salmonella

103

which hemorrhage cauese pinopoint pupils, loss of horizontal gase, quadriparesis, decerebrate posturing and rapid coma to death

pontine hemorrhage