Pre-speech Vocalizations, Theories of Developing Speech Sounds (Ch. 4) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Pre-speech Vocalizations, Theories of Developing Speech Sounds (Ch. 4) Deck (45):
1

Consonant-vowel (CV or VC) syllables that resemble speech syllables in that they are characterized by rapid formant transitions and full vowels

Canonical babble

2

Popping sound created as negative air pressure is equalized

Click

3

Sound produced with closure along the articulatory tract, resulting in a sound that resembles a consonant

Closant

4

Reflexive expression of distress with a characteristic respiratory pattern; more intense and loud than fuss or whimper

Cry

5

Direction of airflow from the lungs outward, during exhalation

Egressive

6

A vowel with a perceptual quality of a postured articulatory configuration, with deliberate positioning of the mouth and tongue in a speech-like way, yielding a vowel quality distinct from that corresponding to a an at rest position of the tract.

Full Vowel

7

Reflexive expression of distress, but less intense and loud than crying

Fuss

8

Phonation interrupted by at least one glottal stop, producing the perception of distinct syllables.

Glottal stop sequence

9

Sounds formed by primitive tongue closure somewhere in the back of the oral cavity, usually occurring during phonation and often accompanied by either quasivowels or full vowels.

Goo

10

T/F: Gooing is a special case of canonical babbling.

False. Gooing is a special case of particularly primitive marginal babbling.

11

Babbled productions that resemble conversational speech in terms of intonational and durational aspects but do not include meaningful words.

Gibberish

12

Another word for gibberish

jargon

13

Vocalization with either low fundamental frequency (often with glottal fry) or with fundamental frequency in the speaker's habitual range accompanied by substantial vocal harshness.

Growl

14

Direction of airflow inward into the lungs, during inhalation

Ingressive

15

A reflexive expression of positivity, which, like cry, has a characteristic respiratory pattern but with distinct contours

Laugh (-:

16

Resembles canonical babble except that it does not include rapid formant transitions from consonant-like element to full vowel.

Marginal babble

17

Any of the pre-speech vocalizations

Protophone

18

T/F: Cries and laughs are protophones.

False. Cries and laughs are fixed signals and not considered protophones.

19

Vowel sound produced with normal phonation and a neutral (unpostured) vocal tract configuration.

Quasivowel

20

Quasivowels are typically _______________ and _________________.

quiet; short

21

Trills or vibrants formed most often with the lips or the tongue and lips, and occasionally by the tongue body against the toothless alveolar ridge

Raspberry

22

Type of canonical babbling where syllables are perceived to be repeated although they are not required to be phonetically identical.

Reduplicated babble

23

Vocalization produced at a high pitch level, above the habitual range of the vocalizer

Squeal

24

Type of canonical babbling where successive syllables ore perceived to differ substantially from each other.

Variegated babble

25

[mami]
What type of babble?

Variegated babble

26

[dada}
What type of babble?

Reduplicated babble

27

Vowel-like sound produced by infants (includes quasivowels and full vowels)

Vocant

28

Unintentional sounds resulting from non-speech behaviors

Vegetative Sounds

29

Examples of vegetative sounds (4)

Sneeze
Cough
Hiccup
Grunt

30

Speech or pre-speech utterance that is produced without full voicing

Whisper

31

Vocalizations produced at high amplitude, above the habitual amplitude range of the vocalizer

Yell

32

The ______________ ___________________ held that early vocalizations were unrelated to speech.

Discontinuity Theory

33

What characteristics of prespeech vocalizations show us that they are related to speech?

Protophones are contrastive

Babbling is volitional

34

In general, how are protophones different from vegetative sounds and fixed signals?

Protophones are volitional, while vegetative/fixed signals are produced reflexively.

35

What differentiates canonical babbling from marginal babbling?

The transitions between the consonant-like and vowel-like portions of the canonical babble are fast and immediate. In marginal babbling, the transition is gradual.

36

T/F: a late onset of canonical babbling (after ten months of age) is grounds for clinical concern.

True. These infants are at risk for late onset of talking.

37

Crying and vegetative sounds are present at what age?

Right after birth

38

Laughter shows an onset around what age?

4 months

39

The earliest protophones (quasivowels and occasional glottal stop sequences) occur at what age?

Right after birth

40

Gooing occurs at what age?

4 months

41

Full vowels, raspberries, squeals, growls, yells and whispers emerge at what age?

3 months

42

Canonical stage begins around what age?

6 months

43

Reasons to believe that protophones are precursors to speech

Only humans produce them
All normally developing infants produce them before speaking
They occur in developmental sequence
Disruption of protophone development is associated with developmental disorders

44

Linguist who asserted that infant babble was unrelated to the development of speech sounds

Jakobson
("Discontinuity Theory")

45

T/F: Vegetative sounds are protophones.

False. They are reflexive vocalizations.