Prefinals Flashcards Preview

IS > Prefinals > Flashcards

Flashcards in Prefinals Deck (69):
1

Treatment for end-stage organ failure

Organ transplantation

2

Waiting time for patient factors:

Blood type
Tissue type
Height and weight
Medical urgency
Time on the waiting list
Distance between donor
Number of donor in local area

3

Factors of scarcity

Demand for transplantation has increased

Age limit has increased

Diabetes is no longer an absolute contraindication

Donor has shown little growth

4

Types of transplant

Autograft
Syngraft
Allograft
Xenograft (homograft)

5

Types of transplant rejection

Hyperacute rejection
Acute rejection
Chronic rejection
First and second set
Accelerated

6

Graft transferred from one position to another in the same individual

Autograft

7

Graft transplanted between different but identical recipient and donor

Syngraft

8

Graft between genetically different recipient and donor of the same species

Donor antigen not present in the recipient

Allograft (homograft)

9

Graft between indiviuals of different species

Xenograft (heterograft)

10

Occurs within mins. to hrs.

It is mediated by preformed antibody that reacts with donor vascular endothelium

Patients are screened for the presence of preformed HLA antibodies

Hyperacute rejection

11

Occurs days to weeks

It is characterized by parenchymal and vascular injury

Acute cellular rejection

12

Proliferation of smooth muscle cells which causes arteriosclerosis and characterized by progressive fibrosis and scarring with narrowing of the vessel lumen

Chronic rejection

13

It is less severe than hyperacute rejection

Caused by activation of the T cell-mediated response

Accelerated rejection

14

Most common experimental model for transplantation research

Skin transplantation

15

Sensitization will occur within first few days of transplantation and the tissue is lost in 10 to 20 days

First-set and second-set rejection

16

A rejection response of certain grafts, especially of bone marrow

Associated with inadequate immunosuppressive therapy of the donor

Graft-versus-host disease

17

Which allows immunocompetent cells in the donated tissue to recognize the recipients tissue as foreign and to attack them

Inadequate immunosuppressive therapy of the donor

18

First 100 days postinfusion and targets the skin, gastrointestinal tract and liver

Acute GVHD

19

It resembles autoimmune disease with fibrosis affecting the skin, eyes, mouth and other mucosal surfaces

Chronic GVHD

20

This is used in induction and maintenance and treatment of rejection

Immunosuppressive agents

21

Immunosuppressive state will associate ...

Increase susceptibility to infection

Malignancies

Toxic side effects

22

Used for immuno suppression maintenance

Blocks production and secretion of cytokines, inflammatory mediators, chemoattractants and adhesion molecules

Corticosteroids

23

Interferes with the maturation of lymphocytes and kill proliferating cells

Ex. Azathioprine - prevents acute rejection because it inhibits the primary immune reaponse

Antimetabolic agents

24

Blocks signal transduction in T lymphocytes

Ex. Cyclosporine & tacrolimus

Calcineurin inhibitors

25

Previously reffered as rapamycin

Prevents acute renal allograft rejection

Sirulimus

26

Inhibits de novo guanosine synthesis

Inhibits inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase

Mycophenolate mofetil

27

Enumerate immunosuppressive agents

Corticosteroids
Antimetabolic agents
Calcineurin inhibitors
Sirulimus
Mycophenolate mofetil

28

An immunologic reaction dependent on the hosts response to a subsequent exposure of antigen

Sensitization

29

Uncontrolled immune response to an antigen that can produce inflammation, cell destruction or tissue injury

Hypersensitivity

30

Any altered reaction to external substances

Allergy

31

Regulates the immune response and play a role in graft rejection

A group of genes that controls large group of proteins

Major histocompatibility complex

32

Molecular basic for T cells discrimination of self from nonself

Human leukocyte antigen

HLA

33

MHC functions

Histocompatibility of tissue transplant

Transplant rejection may be triggered

34

Closely matched HLA will last longer

Organ transplantation

35

Patient will form antibodies against platelets due to exposure to different HLA types. This will occur on ...

Platelet transfusion

36

HLA is polymorphic and recombination is rare

Paternity Testing

37

Possession of a certain HLA may increase an individual's risk of

Disease

38

Consists of 2 non identical chains, a long alpha chain and a short beta chain

Present on the surface of all nucleated cells

MHC class 1

39

Consists of 2 roughly identical chains, an alpha chain and a beta chain


Present on surface of antigen presenting cells such as macro, dendritic cells

MHC Class 2

40

It mainly interacts with cytotoxic T cells which is initiated by T cell receptor CD8

MHC Class 1

41

Mainly interact with helper T cells which is initiated by T cell receptor CD4

MHC class 2

42

From donor into its normal anatomical position in the recipient

Orthotopic graft

43

From donor typically of one area to a different recipient site

Heterotopic graft

44

It is encoded by
HLA-A
HLA-B
HLA-C

Responsible for clearance of endogenous antigens

Alpha chains are coded in ch6
Beta chains are coded in ch15

MHC CLASS 1

45

Encoded by
HLA-D

Responsible for clearance of exogenous antigens

Bith chains are coded in ch6

MHC CLASS 2

46

Associated disease for T. Pallidum

Syphilis

47

Associated disease for T. pallidum endemicum

Bejel

48

Associated disease for T. Pertenue

Yaws

49

T. carateum associated disease

Pinta

50

Uses cardiolipin as hapten and microbial cells as carrier to produce antigenic reaponse

Wassermann antigen

51

It is a treponemal antigen that came from a spirochetes

Reiter treponeme

52

Signs and symptoms for syphilis

Primary stage
Secondary stage
Late latent stage
Tertiary stage
Neurosyphilis
Congenital syphilis

53

A primary inflammation in the primary stage of syphilis

Chancre

54

It has the presence of single sore which appears as large round bug bites

Serum test for syphilis usually become positive in the first and third week after chancre

Primary stage

55

Usually occurs 6-8 weeks after the chancre

causes rash (does not itch) in
Mouth vagina or anus

Serologic tests are positive

Secondary stage

56

Highly contagious asymptomatic period

Positive on tests

After 4 years, rarely communicable except maternal delivery

Late latent stage

57

Lesions are usualy seen from 3 to 10 years after primary stage

Lesion are usually gummatous type

Lesions are serious in Nervous system, the cardiovascular system and the eyes

This stage is asymptomatic

Tertiary stage

58

Syphilis on central nervous system

Neurosyphilis

59

Kind of neurosyphilis where there are no signs or symptoms but reactive to serological tests

Asymptatic neurosyphilis

60

Kind of neurosuphilis where there are signs and symptoms with either meningeal or vascular involvement

Meningovascular neurosyphilis

61

Kind of neurosyphilis which presents paresis(incomplete paralysis) or tabes dordalis

Parenchymatous neurosyphilis

62

Aqcuired from mother during fetal life

It will occur if the mother has early syphilis rather than late

Congenital syphilis

63

It is used in early stages of syphilis for the detection of bacteria

Darkfield microscopy

64

Simple inexpensive and used for screening in syphilis

Nontreponemal tests

65

Detects antibodies specific for syphilis.
A confirmatory test after nontreponemal test

Treponemal test

66

Useful for monitoring treatment for syphilis

Principle: the test is designed to detect reagin, an antibody-like substance present in serum

Rapid plasma reagin

RPR

67

This test is primarily performed on csf tobhelp diagnose neurosyphilis

Reagents: cardiolipin, chol, lecithin NSS

Venereal disease research laboratory (VDRL)

68

Principle for quali VDRL

The patient's heat activated serum is mixed with buffered saline soln and cardiolipin-lecithin-cholesterol antigen

69

Principle for quanti VDRL

Retest quantitavely to an end-point titer.
Performed in All sera that produce reactive, weakly reactive or questionably non reactive results in the quali VDRL