Prefrontal Cortex and Executive Functioning Flashcards Preview

MD1 Neuroscience > Prefrontal Cortex and Executive Functioning > Flashcards

Flashcards in Prefrontal Cortex and Executive Functioning Deck (33):
1

What are some of the functions of the frontal lobe?

Motor control
Language
Higher level cognition
- Executive functioning

2

What kind of presentation can a lesion in a particular nucleus of the thalamus lead to?

Similar to what you'd see if lesion in connected cortical area

3

What is the difference between lobotomy and locotomy?

Lobotomy = removal of tissue
Locotomy = severing of connections

4

What is the anterior unit in Luria's functional systems?

Prefrontal cortex

5

What is executive function?

Inter-related processes responsible for goal directed, purposeful behaviour
Includes emotional and social behaviour, and cognition
"Frontal lobe" function

6

What are the areas of the prefrontal cortex responsible for executive function?

Lateral
Orbital
Medial

7

Does damage to each area responsible for executive function present the same way?

No

8

Which part of the prefrontal cortex is usually tested, in regards to executive function?

Usually only lateral function routinely tested

9

What does the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex do?

Working memory
Response selection
Planning and organised
Hypothesis generation
Flexibility maintaining/shifting set
Insight
Moral judgement

10

What supplies the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex?

Largely middle cerebral artery

11

What is working memory?

Keep information in mind and manipulate it a little

12

What is response selection?

What is best response in this situation?

13

What is planning and organising?

How to carry out simple tasks; eg: making cup of tea

14

What is hypothesis generation?

Reason through different solutions to a problem

15

What is flexibility maintaining/shifting set?

Maintain train of thought but shift if need to

16

What does the medial prefrontal cortex do?

Emotional-motivational interface
- At most extreme: akinetic mutism
- Apathy
- Lack of initiative
- Indifference

17

What is the blood supply of the medial prefrontal cortex?

Anterior cerebral artery

18

What is akinetic mutism?

Lack of desire to talk > don't talk at all

19

What does the orbitofrontal prefrontal cortex do?

Highly connected to limbic areas
Inhibition
- Emotional
- Cognitive
- Social
Impulsivity

20

What is the blood supply to the orbitofrontal prefrontal cortex?

Anterior and middle cerebral arteries

21

Which area is the last to develop in the brain?

Frontal lobe

22

Which area is the first to degenerate in the brain?

Frontal lobe

23

Which abilities are amongst the last to reach maturity?

Executive functions
- Lower order functions develop first
- Higher order develop later

24

In which order to executive functions develop?

1. Theory of mind
2. Cognitive flexibility
3. Inhibitory control
4. Affective decision-making
5. Working memory

25

Are executive and frontal lobe dysfunction the same disorder?

No

26

What is important to note when thinking about executive dysfunction?

Can occur because of disruption at any level of system; eg: executive symptoms from subcortical lesions

27

What are the positive symptoms of executive dysfunction?

Distractability
Social dysinhibition
Emotional instability
Perseveration
Impulsivity
Hypergraphia

28

What are the negative symptoms of executive dysfunction?

Lack of concern
Restricted emotion
Deficient empathy
Failure to complete tasks
Lack of initiation

29

How are medial and orbitofrontal prefrontal cortical lesions formally assessed?

Difficult to do
Clinical judgement
History taking

30

What executive dysfunction does the "tower of London" test?

Disinhibition and problem solving
In dysfunction
- Disregard rules
- Can't figure out strategy to complete task

31

What executive dysfunction does the "stroop test" test?

Disinhibition

32

What executive dysfunction does the "Rey complex figure test" test?

Planning deficit

33

What are some common causes of executive dysfunction?

Closed head injury
Stroke
Psychiatric conditions
Dementias
Focal lesions
Inflammatory
Developmental

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