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Flashcards in Prehistoric Scotland Deck (51):
1

What does colonise mean?

To move somewhere to live and take it over

2

What are homo Sapiens

The first humans

3

What does migrate mean?

To travel long distances in search of food/better living conditions

4

Hunter gathers lived near the top right of scotland. Why was yhis a good place to live?

They were near coastal areas and forests. Forest provides plenty of wood and shelter and in the coastal area there’s fresh water and good view points

5

How would a hunter gatherer make a fire

Use horses hoof fungus to light the fire. Bang flint together. Also need iron pyrites, grass and wood

6

How would a hunter gather make an arrow?

Hazel branch, charcoal, pine resin, flint arrowhead, stinging nettles, feathers, sinew from deer, and bluebell bulbs. Use pine resin to stick the head to the stick. Hazel wood to make the arrow. They put the arrow shaft in the fire to make it straight. Use sand paper. They chew bluebell bulbs to use as glue

7

How would they make a bow?

You need yew, flint adze, flint scrapper, leather and sandstone (sandpaper) Use yew and flint adze to shape the bow then place in the fire to soften. You use sandstone and leather to smooth the bow

8

Name four facts about hunter gathers compared to farmers

Nomadic
hunted animals for meat
gathered plants, nuts and berries to eat
stayed in caves and temporary shelters

9

Name four facts about farmers compared to hunter gathers

Stayed in one place
Kept and tamed animal for meat and other stuff
Grew plants, nuts and berries to eat
Built houses and lived in them

10

Where was Skara Brae located?

Orkney Islands

11

Why is Skara Brae so important to archaeologists?

It is the best preserved prehistoric village in Northern Europe

12

How old is Skara Brae?

Over 5000 years

13

Skara Brae was built semi-subterranean. Why?

To keep out storms and be safer underground

14

Why was Skara Brae so well preserved?

It was covered by sand for a long time

15

How was Skara Brae discovered

A big storm blew the sand away

16

Give five reasons why people settled at Skara Brae

Flat land that is good for building
Fresh water source nearby
Good grass for cattle and sheep
Plenty of stone for building houses
Good source of fish

17

What kind of tools did they have?

Stone tools made of flint and chert
Stone tools were arrows and scrapers
Larger tools were made of bone - stone was hard to shape and broke easily

18

What did people look like at Skara Brae?

Bones revealed smaller than us
Wore skins and furs for clothing
Used bones for jewellery
Used paint to colour carvings and decorate their bodies

19

When was Skara Brae built and occupied?

3180 BC and 2500 BC

20

What did people of Skara Brae eat?

Cattle, sheep and sea food

21

What do people believe the people of Skara Brae worshipped?

The spirit of the sea

22

What do some archaeologists believe the people of Skara Brae were skilled in

Astronomy

23

What is a henge?

A ditch often surrounding a stone circle

24

What is a megalith

Huge stone

25

What is a druid?

Prehistoric priest

26

What were stone circles used as

Places for worship and prayer

27

What did early farmers believe the gods controlled?

The natural world and the weather

28

Where has a prehistoric goddess been found?

Ballachulish near Glencoe

29

Where can a famous stone circle be found?

Callanish on the Isle of Lewis

30

Who did Druids make sacrifices to?

The gods

31

What are crannogs

Dwelling built out on water so easy to escape

32

What is a broch

High stone tower with no windows and only one way in

33

What did hill forts provide?

Layers of defence

34

What did scabbards prove about Iron age

Warfare was important

35

What is a deskford camyx?

A war trumpet used to scare people

36

What did warrior graves prove

People fighting were important

37

What did the Ballachulish figure show?

Showed they worshipped a god

38

What did the human skulls found show

They used them as war trophies

39

Name 4 things that showed Iron Age were wealthy

Balmaclellan mirror
Bronze armlet
Culbin sands
Gold Torc

40

What evidence was there of farming in Iron Age?

Calungie souterrains (hold crops, fresh, like fridges)
Rotary quernstornes (grinding grains to make flour)

41

What is a legate?

A general or governor of a roman province

42

What is a Roman Legion?

A group of 4000 - 6000 roman soldiers

43

What is a centurian?

An officer in the roman army who was in charge of “centuries” (80-100 soldiers)

44

Name three advantages of being a Roman soldier

You get the travel to world
Good health, fit and muscly
You get paid good money

45

What are the disadvantages of being a Roman soldier?

Life could be in danger
Have to pay for own food, clothes, weapons
Couldn’t get married
Can’t leave (get killed)

46

Prehistoric Scotland achievements
Name 5 ways that animals were used

Tame animals and look after them
Kill animals for food
Use as transport
Kept animals that produced food (chickens)
Learned how to knit clothes and make shoes with animal skins

47

Prehistoric Scotland achievements
Name 4 ways that the discovery of flint and stone helped them

Used to make fire and weapons
Made bows and arrows
Learned how to fight
Used weapons to hunt animals

48

Prehistoric Scotland achievements
What did they make to live in?

Houses, by experimenting with different materials

49

Prehistoric Scotland achievements
How did they get about on water?

They made coracles

50

Prehistoric Scotland achievements
What did they use to make bread?

Quernstones

51

Prehistoric Scotland achievements
What did people learn to do with each other?

Trading