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1

Some connotations of Philosophy

guiding principle

the reason behind

one that is taking things in a very profound way or he is too analytics

2

The Etymological meaning of Philosophy

Philo or philien

Sophia

3

Philo or philien

love

4

Sophia

Wisdom

5

Phytagoras

The one who coined the term "philosophia"

Was one of the wisest men of Ancient Greece

Born in Samos, later migrated in Croton in southern Italy

6

meaning of the term Philosophia

love of wisdom

7

The traditional definition of Philosophy

It is the science of all things or beings in their ultimate causes and principles known by human reason alone.

8

Why is Philosophy a science of all things or beings in their ultimate causes and principles "known by human reason alone"?

Because it is based its knowledge solely on man's reasoning power and not on authority of faith.

9

What are the benefits from studying Philosophy?

A. it enables us to systematize all important knowledge in the domain of reason.

B. It guides us in distinguishing truth from error and in searching or the truth.

C. It provides us the ability to analyze and the "intellectual eye" to see things not only as they are, but also the underlying causes and meaning of things around us or happen around us.

D. It gives us insights about our nature as human beings, it helps us understand better ourselves, and help develop or improve ourselves.

10

Where does Philosophy starts?

with wonder

by posing the question "why"

11

To philosophize is to?

Satisfy one's wonder, to search for the meaning and reason of things.

12

How are philosophers identified?

Period

Philosophical system

13

What are the major periods of the history of western philosophy?

Ancient

Medieval

Modern

Contemporary

14

Ancient Philosophy

covers roughly the years from 6th century C to 529 AD

This period started with the Ancient Greeks.

15

Ancient Greeks

the people who started the Ancient Philosophy

considered to be the first philosophers in the West.

The Ionians were the 1st to have asked a philosophical inquiry about the nature of the world.

16

The three sub-periods of Ancient Philosophy.

Pre-Socratic Period

Socratic Period

Post-Socratic Period

17

Pre-Socratic Period

(the philosophers)

1. Thales of Miletus
2. Phytagoras
3. Heraclitus
4. Anaximines
5. Anaximander
6. Anaxagoras
7. The Sophists

18

Socratic Period

(5th - 4th Century BC)

Known as the Golden Age of Hellenism

During this period, the Greek civilization flourished. Every aspect if Greek civilization including philosophy reached its peak and full development.

19

The three important figures in the history of Philosophy

Socrates
Plato
Aristotle

20

Socrates

(is a? What did he do?)

moralist

a philosopher who advocated moral transformation among the citizens of Athens.

21

Plato

(Known as, is a ____ of ____, his idea)

idealist

student of Socrates

The material world that we see and experience is only a copy of the ideal world or the world of ideas.

22

What is knowledge for Plato?

For him knowledge is a matter of intuition

23

Ideal world

it is where everything is perfect and good, and the soul pre-existed in that world, and thus it already knows the ideas

24

Socrates' unique Method of teaching

Socratic method or dialogue

25

One of the famous teachings of Socrates

"Know Thyself"

26

Aristotle

(known as?)

realist

The greatest among Socrates and Plato

philosopher par excellence

father of Logic

27

The school established by Aristotle

Lyceum

28

How does knowledge starts according to Aristotle?

it starts from sense experience or perception, and it is through abstraction that we are able to form ideas about things and the world.

29

What is the world we see according to Aristotle?

the world that we see and experience is the

real world.

30

How do we gain ideas about the world according to Aristotle?

through experience

31

Post-Socratic Period

(Date and philosophers)

322 BC - 529 AD

1 Epicurus
2 Zeno
3 Pyrhho
4 Plotinus
5 Porphyry and Proclus

32

Epicurus

the proponent of Epicureanism

33

Zeno the Stoic

the proponent of Stoicism

the one who coined the term LOGIC

34

Pyrrho

the proponent of Scepticism

35

Porphyry and Proclus

the proponents of Neo-Platonism

Porphyry authored the book Isagoge which means introduction

it is a short introduction to the Categories of Aristotle

36

Martin Heidegger

identified with

Existentialism during the
Contemporary period

37

St. Thomas Aquinas

identified with

moderate
Aristotelianism during the
Golden Age of Scholasticism in the
Medieval Period

Known as he Angelic Doctor

baptized the pagan philosophy of Aristotle and transformed it into a philosophy that is compatible with the Christian Faith.

38

Patristic Philosophy (who are the forerunners?)

the forerunners during this period are St. Augustine and Boethius.

39

Medieval Philosophy (sub-periods)


This period is divided into three sub-periods:
1 the beginning os Scholasticism
2 the Golden Age of Scholasticism
3. the decline of Scholasticism

40

the beginning of Scholastic philosophy

(date, dominated by)

(9th to 12th century)
this period includes the Arab philosophers

41

The Golden Age of Scholasticism

(date, dominated by, brands of Aristotelian interpretations)

(13th Century)
is dominated by Aristotelian philosophy

Ecclectic Aristotelianism
Moderate Aristotelianism
Heterodox Aristotelianism

42

Modern Philosophy

(date and categories)

1450 - 1799 AD

1 Renaissance
2 Rationalism
3 Empiricism
4 Enlightenment

43

St. Albert the Great

Dominican priest known to have been the teacher of St. Thomas

44

Contemporary Philosophy

beginning of 19th century up to the 20th century

45

The Division of Human Sciences According to Aristotle

Speculative Science (for the sake of knowledge. concerned with topics that are theoretical)

Practical Science (for the sake of proper conduct of human life. concerned with practical application of knowledge to man's life and conduct.)

Productive Science (for the sake of producing and providing for the human needs. concerned with the enhancement of the technical and mechanical skills of men.)

46

Speculative Science

for the sake of knowledge. concerned with topics that are theoretical

Logic, Metaphysics, Epistemology, Cosmology, Psychology

47

Practical Science

for the sake of proper conduct of human life. concerned with practical application of knowledge to man's life and conduct

Ethics, Politics, and Aesthetics

48

Productive Sciences

or the sake of producing and providing for the human needs. concerned with the enhancement of the technical and mechanical skills of men

Engineering and Agriculture

49

Cosmology

Philosophy of Nature

The Science of the nature of the world

50

Rational Psychology

the science of the nature of man, his powers, acts and habits

51

Epistemology

Critics or Criteriology

the science of the validity of human knowledge

52

Ontology

General Metaphysics

the science of beings in their general form

53

Ethics

Moral Philosophy

the study of morality of human acts

54

Theodicy

Special Metaphysics

the philosophical study of the nature and attributes of God

55

Aesthetics

the science of arts and beauty

56

Social Philosophy

the science of the sociality of man and nature of society

57

Logic (Etymology)

logike - thought

treatise pertaining to thought

it is also an art of reasoning

58

Logic (Irving Copi)

the study of the methods and principles used to distinguish correct reasoning from incorrect reasoning

59

Logic (Real Definition)

the science of correct inferential thinking

60

Formal Logic

discusses the conceptual patterns or structures needed for a valid and correct argument or inference.

deals with the correct and valid patterns of argumentation.

61

Material Logic

deals with the nature of the terms and propositions that are used in the different types of inference.

It discusses the types and meaning of terms or words and sentences or propositions used in the argument.

62

Chrysippus

one of the founders of Stoic school

treated the propositions as either true or false

63

Peter Abelard

Originated the theory of universals

64

William of Ockham

devoted much of his attention to MODAL LOGIC

VALID AND INVALID SYLLOGISM

Matalanguage

65

Francis Bacon

wrote the NOVUM ORGANON - intention of improving on the Organon of Aristotle.

66

Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz

attempted to develop a symbolic logic

calculus

67

John Stuart Mill

initiated the revival of inductive logic

68

The study of Aristotelian Logic's division according to the three mental operations or acts of the intellect

their mental products

external signs

their corresponding logical issues

69

intellect

is the spiritual knowing faculty of man

70

The three acts of operations of the intellect

Simple Apprehension

Judgment

Reasoning

71

the 1st mental Operation

Mental Operation: Simple Apprehension
Mental Product: Idea/Concept
External Sign: Term
Logical Issue: Predicability

72

the 2nd mental operation

Mental Operation: Judgment
Mental Product: Enunciation
External Sign: Proposition
Logical Issue: Predication

73

the 3rd mental operation

Mental Operation: Reasoning
Mental Product: Argument
External Sign: Syllogism
Logical Issue: Inference