Flashcards in Prelims for Philo CHAPTER 1 Deck (73):
Some connotations of Philosophy
the reason behind
one that is taking things in a very profound way or he is too analytics
The Etymological meaning of Philosophy
Philo or philien
Philo or philien
The one who coined the term "philosophia"
Was one of the wisest men of Ancient Greece
Born in Samos, later migrated in Croton in southern Italy
meaning of the term Philosophia
love of wisdom
The traditional definition of Philosophy
It is the science of all things or beings in their ultimate causes and principles known by human reason alone.
Why is Philosophy a science of all things or beings in their ultimate causes and principles "known by human reason alone"?
Because it is based its knowledge solely on man's reasoning power and not on authority of faith.
What are the benefits from studying Philosophy?
A. it enables us to systematize all important knowledge in the domain of reason.
B. It guides us in distinguishing truth from error and in searching or the truth.
C. It provides us the ability to analyze and the "intellectual eye" to see things not only as they are, but also the underlying causes and meaning of things around us or happen around us.
D. It gives us insights about our nature as human beings, it helps us understand better ourselves, and help develop or improve ourselves.
Where does Philosophy starts?
by posing the question "why"
To philosophize is to?
Satisfy one's wonder, to search for the meaning and reason of things.
How are philosophers identified?
What are the major periods of the history of western philosophy?
covers roughly the years from 6th century C to 529 AD
This period started with the Ancient Greeks.
the people who started the Ancient Philosophy
considered to be the first philosophers in the West.
The Ionians were the 1st to have asked a philosophical inquiry about the nature of the world.
The three sub-periods of Ancient Philosophy.
1. Thales of Miletus
7. The Sophists
(5th - 4th Century BC)
Known as the Golden Age of Hellenism
During this period, the Greek civilization flourished. Every aspect if Greek civilization including philosophy reached its peak and full development.
The three important figures in the history of Philosophy
(is a? What did he do?)
a philosopher who advocated moral transformation among the citizens of Athens.
(Known as, is a ____ of ____, his idea)
student of Socrates
The material world that we see and experience is only a copy of the ideal world or the world of ideas.
What is knowledge for Plato?
For him knowledge is a matter of intuition
it is where everything is perfect and good, and the soul pre-existed in that world, and thus it already knows the ideas
Socrates' unique Method of teaching
Socratic method or dialogue
One of the famous teachings of Socrates
The greatest among Socrates and Plato
philosopher par excellence
father of Logic
The school established by Aristotle
How does knowledge starts according to Aristotle?
it starts from sense experience or perception, and it is through abstraction that we are able to form ideas about things and the world.
What is the world we see according to Aristotle?
the world that we see and experience is the
How do we gain ideas about the world according to Aristotle?
(Date and philosophers)
322 BC - 529 AD
5 Porphyry and Proclus
the proponent of Epicureanism
Zeno the Stoic
the proponent of Stoicism
the one who coined the term LOGIC
the proponent of Scepticism
Porphyry and Proclus
the proponents of Neo-Platonism
Porphyry authored the book Isagoge which means introduction
it is a short introduction to the Categories of Aristotle
Existentialism during the
St. Thomas Aquinas
Aristotelianism during the
Golden Age of Scholasticism in the
Known as he Angelic Doctor
baptized the pagan philosophy of Aristotle and transformed it into a philosophy that is compatible with the Christian Faith.
Patristic Philosophy (who are the forerunners?)
the forerunners during this period are St. Augustine and Boethius.
Medieval Philosophy (sub-periods)
This period is divided into three sub-periods:
1 the beginning os Scholasticism
2 the Golden Age of Scholasticism
3. the decline of Scholasticism
the beginning of Scholastic philosophy
(date, dominated by)
(9th to 12th century)
this period includes the Arab philosophers
The Golden Age of Scholasticism
(date, dominated by, brands of Aristotelian interpretations)
is dominated by Aristotelian philosophy
(date and categories)
1450 - 1799 AD
St. Albert the Great
Dominican priest known to have been the teacher of St. Thomas
beginning of 19th century up to the 20th century
The Division of Human Sciences According to Aristotle
Speculative Science (for the sake of knowledge. concerned with topics that are theoretical)
Practical Science (for the sake of proper conduct of human life. concerned with practical application of knowledge to man's life and conduct.)
Productive Science (for the sake of producing and providing for the human needs. concerned with the enhancement of the technical and mechanical skills of men.)
for the sake of knowledge. concerned with topics that are theoretical
Logic, Metaphysics, Epistemology, Cosmology, Psychology
for the sake of proper conduct of human life. concerned with practical application of knowledge to man's life and conduct
Ethics, Politics, and Aesthetics
or the sake of producing and providing for the human needs. concerned with the enhancement of the technical and mechanical skills of men
Engineering and Agriculture
Philosophy of Nature
The Science of the nature of the world
the science of the nature of man, his powers, acts and habits
Critics or Criteriology
the science of the validity of human knowledge
the science of beings in their general form
the study of morality of human acts
the philosophical study of the nature and attributes of God
the science of arts and beauty
the science of the sociality of man and nature of society
logike - thought
treatise pertaining to thought
it is also an art of reasoning
Logic (Irving Copi)
the study of the methods and principles used to distinguish correct reasoning from incorrect reasoning
Logic (Real Definition)
the science of correct inferential thinking
discusses the conceptual patterns or structures needed for a valid and correct argument or inference.
deals with the correct and valid patterns of argumentation.
deals with the nature of the terms and propositions that are used in the different types of inference.
It discusses the types and meaning of terms or words and sentences or propositions used in the argument.
one of the founders of Stoic school
treated the propositions as either true or false
Originated the theory of universals
William of Ockham
devoted much of his attention to MODAL LOGIC
VALID AND INVALID SYLLOGISM
wrote the NOVUM ORGANON - intention of improving on the Organon of Aristotle.
Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz
attempted to develop a symbolic logic
John Stuart Mill
initiated the revival of inductive logic
The study of Aristotelian Logic's division according to the three mental operations or acts of the intellect
their mental products
their corresponding logical issues
is the spiritual knowing faculty of man
The three acts of operations of the intellect
the 1st mental Operation
Mental Operation: Simple Apprehension
Mental Product: Idea/Concept
External Sign: Term
Logical Issue: Predicability
the 2nd mental operation
Mental Operation: Judgment
Mental Product: Enunciation
External Sign: Proposition
Logical Issue: Predication