Prentice Ch. 17 - Pharmacology, Drugs, and Sports Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Prentice Ch. 17 - Pharmacology, Drugs, and Sports Deck (65):
1

Pharmacology

the study of drugs and their origin, nature, properties, and effects on living organisms

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drug

a chemical agent used in the prevention treatment or diagnosis of disease

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pharmacokinetics

the method by which drugs are absorbed, distributed, metabolized and eliminated

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pharmaacodynamics

the actions or the effects of a drug on the body

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inhalation

bringing medication or substances to the respiratory tract
(oxygen, water, vapor, or highly aromatic medication)

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indradermal or subcutaneous

into the skin, hypodermic needle
used when a rapid response is needed

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Intramuscular

given directly into the muscle
gluteal area or deltoid muscle

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Intranasal

introduction of a decongestant intranasal solution by using a dropper or an atomizer

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intraspinal

- introduction of drugs to combat specific organisms that have entered the spinal cord
- injection of a substance; such as procaine, to anesthetize the lower limbs
- withdrawal of spinal fluid for study

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intravaginal

administration of drug/drug-containing device inside the vagina
absorbed through mucosa

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intravenous

- given when an immediate reaction to the medication is desired

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oral

- most common method
- tablets, capsules, powders, and liquids

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rectal

limited
absorbed by mucosal lining

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sublingual and buccal

placing easily dissolved agents such as troches (lozenges) or tablets under the tongue

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injunctions (external)

oily or medicated substances that are rubbed into the skin and result in a local or systemic reaction (massage lubricants)

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Ointments (external)

oil, petroleum jelly, or lanolin combined with drugs are applied for long-lasting topical medicaion

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Pastes (external)

ointments with a nonfat base, spread either on loth or paper or directly on the skin.
usually contain an irritant, are applied as a counterirritant
- used for relieving pain, increasing circulation, and decreasing inflammation

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Transdermal patches

absorbed gradually through the skin

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solutions

administered externally and are extremely varied.
- antiseptics, disinfectants, vasoconstrictors, and liquid rubefacients (alcohol, turpentine)

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drug vehicle

the substance in which a drug is transported

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bioavailability

how completely a particular drug is absorbed by the system

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volume of distribution

the volume of plasma in which a drug is dissolved

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efficacy

a drug's capability of producing a specific therapeutic effect

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potentcy

the dose of drug required to produce a desired therapeutic effect

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biotransoframtion

transforming a drug so that it can be metabolized

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metabolism

changing a drug into a water-soluble compound that can be excreted

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excretion

controlled though the kidneys and then through saliva, sweat and feces

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drug half-life

- the rate at which a drug disappears from the body though metabolism, excretion, or both
- amount of time required for the palm drug level to be reduced by one-half
- critical in determining how often and in what dosage a drug must be administered to achieve and maintain therapeutic levels of concentration

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steady state

- when the amount of the drug taken is equal to the amount that is excreted
- usually reached after five half-lives of the drug have occurred

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Dispensing prescription drugs

at no time can anyone other than a person licensed by law legally prescribe or dispense prescription drugs for a patient

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record keeping

- name of patient
- complaint or symptoms
- current medications
- any known allergies
- name of medication given
- lot number if available (identifies manufacturer, date and place of production)
- experiation date
- quantity of medication
- method of administration
- date and time

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analgesics

pain-relieving drugs

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anesthetics

agents that produce local or general numbness to touch, pain or stimulation

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antacids

substances that neutralize acidity; commonly used in the digestive tract

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antibiotics

drugs that kill bacteria or inhibit their growth

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antidotes

substance that prevent or counteract the action of poison

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antipruritics

agents that relieve itching

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antipyretics

drugs that reduce body temperature

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astringents

agents that cause contraction or puckering action

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carminatives

agents that relieve flatulence

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cathartics

agents used to evacuate substances from the bowels; active purgatives

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caustics

burning agents, capable of destroying living tissue

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disinfectants

agents that kill or inhibit the growth of microorganisms; only applied to nonliving materials

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emetics

agents that cause vomiting

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expectorants

agents that suppress coughing

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hemostatics

substances that either slow down or stop bleeding

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local antiseptics

local disinfectantssubstances that can be placed on living tissue for the express purpose of either killing bacteria or inhibiting their growth

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local disinfectants

substances that combat microorganisms but should be applied only to nonliving objects

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Alcohol

- ethyl alcohol (70 percent by weight)
- isopropyl alcohol (70 percent)
- equally effective

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phenol

disinfectant

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halogens

antiseptic and disinfectant qualities
- betadine is an excellent germicie

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oxidizing agents

hydrogen peroxide - antiseptic that because of his oxidation, affects bacteria but readily decomposes in the presence of organic substances, such as a blood and pus

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application of hydrogen peroxide

results in the formation of an active, effervescent gas that dislodges particles of wound material and debris and, by removing degenerated tissue, eliminates the would as likely environment for bacterial breeding.

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antifungal agents

- terbinafine (lamisil)

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antibiotics types

- penicillins and cephalosporins
- bacitracin (polysporin)
- tetracyclines
- macroslides
- quinolones

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drugs for asthma

- albuterol

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two most common types of inhalers

- metered does inhalers (MDIs)
- dry powder inhalers (DPIs)

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inhaler overdose

irregular heartbeat, tremor, seizure, headache, nausea, and vomiting

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pain relievers

drugs used to inhibit pain or inflammation include counteriritants and local anesthetics, narcotic analgesics, and nonnarcotic anlgesics and antipyretics

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Narcotic analgesics

derived directly from opium or are synthetic
- codeine (less potent)
- morphine (depresses pain sensations)

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cathartics (laxatives)

they can lead to an electrolyte imbalance

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beta blockers

- used primarily for hypertension and heart disease
- slows heart rate and decreases the contractility of heart muscle, thus decreasing cardiac output

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diuretics

increase kidney excretion by decreasing the kidney's resorption of sodium

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androstenedione

increases the testosterone in males and particularly in females primarily for the purpose of enhancing athletic performance

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Sanctions for positive NCAA drug tests

first time positive test, the NCAA will declare the athlete ineligible for all regular and postseason competitions for a minimum of 1 year. can be retested anytime within that year