Prentice Ch. 9 - Mechanisms and Characteristics of Musko-skeletal and Nerve Trauma Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Prentice Ch. 9 - Mechanisms and Characteristics of Musko-skeletal and Nerve Trauma Deck (85):
1

Trauma

a physical injury or wound that is produced by an external or internal force

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Force

when a force applied to any part of the body results in a harmful disturbance in function and or structure and a mechanical injury is said to have been sustained

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load

external force or forces acting on internal tissue

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stiffness

ability of a tissue to resist a load

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stress

internal resistance to an external load

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strain

extent of deformation of tissue under loading

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deformation

change in the shape of a tissue

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elasticity

property that allows a tissue to return to normal following deformation

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yield point

elastic limit of tissue

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plastic

deformation of tissues that exists after the load is removed

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creep

deformation of tissues that occurs with application of a constant load over time

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mechanical failure

exceeding the ability to withstand stress and strain causing tissue to break down

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tissue stresses

compression
tension
shearing
bending
torsion

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compression

external loads applied toward one another on opposite surfaces in opposite directions

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tension

force that pulls of stretches tissue. equal and opposite external loads that pull a structure apart

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shearing

equal but not directly opposite loads are applied to opposing surfaces, forcing those surfaces to move in parallel directions relative to one another (blisters or abrasions)

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bending

two force pairs act at opposite ends of a structure (4 point). the original axis maintains itself while the convex side of the structure is elongated

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torsion

caused by twisting in opposite directions from the opposite ends of a structure cause sear stress over then entire cross section of that structure (spiral fractures)

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Muscles are composed of...

contractile cells, or fibers that produce movement. they possess the ability to contract as well as the properties of irritability, conductivity, and elasticity

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muscle strain

a stretch, tear, or rip in the muscle or its tendon

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Grade I strain

- some muscle fibers have been stretched or actually torn.
- some tenderness and pain on active motion.
- full ROM

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Grade 2 strain

a number of muscle fibers have been torn, and active contraction of the muscle is extremely painful
- usually a depression can be felt in the muscle belly
- ROM is decreased due to pain

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Grade 3 strain

- complete rupture of the muscle in the muscle belly at the point where it becomes a tendon
- signifiant impairment or perhaps total loss of motion
- pain is intense but quickly diminishes because of complete nerve fiber separation

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Where are grade 3 strains the most common?

biceps brachii
achilles heel cord

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how long do hamstrings usually take to heal?

6-8 weeks

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muscle cramps

- involuntary muscle contractions
- happen from excessive loss of water and electrolytes
- calf abdomen and hamstrings

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Muscle guarding

muscle contraction in response to pain
follows musculoskeletal injury

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Muscle spasms: clonic

involuntary muscle contraction characterized by alternate contraction and relaxation in rapid succession

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Muscle spasms: tonic

type of muscle contraction characterized by constant contraction that lasts for a period of time

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muscle soreness

pain caused by overexertion in exercise

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acute-onset muscle soreness

- accompanies fatigue
- transient and occurs during and immediately after exercise

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delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS)

- becomes most intense 24-48 hours and then subsides after 3-4 days

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Tendon injuries

- breaking point occurs after a 6-8% increase in length
- a tendon is usually double the strength of the muscle it serves, tears commonly occur at the muscle belly, musculotendinous junction or bony attachment

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repetitive muscle tears

evolve into chronic muscle strain that resorbs collagen fibers and eventually weakens the tendon

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tendon

tough band of connective tissue that attaches muscle to bone

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crepitus

a crackling feel or sound

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how long to get rid of tendinitis

2 weeks of REST
(biking or swimming)

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tendinosis

breakdown of a tendon without inflammation

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tenosynovitis

inflammation of a tendon and its synovial sheath

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myofascial trigger point

discreet, hypersensitive nodule within a taut band of skeletal muscle and/or fascia
harder than normal

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latent trigger point

does not cause spontaneous pain but may restrict movement or cause muscle weakness

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active trigger point

pain at rest
when pressure is applied "jump sign"

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contusion

compression of soft tissue that results in bleeding into surrounding tissues

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ecchymosis

bluish-purple discoloration of the skin

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myositis ossificans

calcium deposits that result from repeated trauma

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synovial joints

articulations of two bones surrounded by a joint capsule lined with synovial membrane

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Grade I sprain

some stretching.
some separation of the ligament fibers
joint stiffness
localized swelling

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Grade 2 sprain

some tearing and separation
moderate instability of the joint
moderate to severe swelling and joint stiffness

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grade 3 sprain

total tear
can result in a subluxation
initially severe pain but subsides
swelling may become great
joint stiffness

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ligaments heal slowly because...

poor blood supply

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diastasis

separation of articulating bones

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dislocation

a bone is forced out of alignment and stays out until surgically or manually replaced or reduced

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subluxation

a bone is forced out of alignment but goes back into place

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osteoarthritis

a wearing down of hyaline cartilage

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bursitis

occurs around joints where there is friction between the tendon and the bone

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bursae

pieces of synovial membrane that contain a small amount of fluid

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Flat bones

skull, ribs and scapulae

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irregular bones

vertebral column, skull

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short bones

wrist and ankle

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long bones

humerus, ulna, femur, tibia, fibula and phalances

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diaphysis

main shaft of the long bone
hollow and cylindrical

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epiphysis

located at the end of long bones
spongelike

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periosteum

dense white fibrous membrane covers long bones except at joint surfaces

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osteoblasts

provide bone growth and repair

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osteoclasts

bone-remodeling cells

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closed fracture

one which there is little or no movement

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open fracture

enough displacement of the featured ends that the bone actually breaks though surrounding tissue

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greenstick fracture

incomplete breaks in bones
children

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comminuted fracture

3 or more fragments
hard blow or fall in an awkward position

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linear fracture

bone splits along its length
jumping from a height

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transverse fracture

occur in a straight line
direct outside blow usually causes this injury

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oblique fracture

occur when one end of the bone receives sudden torsion or twisting wile the other end is fixed

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spiral fracture

S-shaped
foot is firmly planted when the body is suddenly rotated in an opposing direction

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impacted fracture

fall from height
long bone to receive directly on its long axis a force of magnitude that the osseous tissue is compressed

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blowout fracture

serrated fractures in which the two bony fragments have a sawtooth, sharp edged fracture line

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depressed frature

often in flat bones
found in skull

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contrecoup fracture

an athlete may be hit on one side of the head with such force that the brain and internal structures compress against the opposite side of the skull, causing a fracture

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stress fracture

overload caused by muscle contraction, amenorrhea, altered stress distribution in the bone accompanying muscle fatigue, a change in the ground reaction force

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Epiphyseal conditions: type 1

complete separation of the physics in relation to the metaphysics without fracture to bone

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epiphyseal conditions: type 2

separation of the growth plate and a small portion of the metaphysis

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epiphyseal conditions: type 3

fracture of the physis

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epiphyseal conditions: type 4

fracture of a portion of the physics and the metaphysis

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epiphyseal conditions: type 5

no displacement of the physics, but the cursing force can cause a growth deformity

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neuropraxia

interruption in conduction of an impulse down the nerve fiber

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neuritis

chronic nerve problem
can be caused by a variety of forces that usually have been repeated or continued for a long time