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What are cause/promotional pressure groups?

Promotional/cause pressure groups endeavour to promote a particular cause. Promotional pressure groups are not self-interested in that the achievement of their objectives is not necessarily of direct professional or economic benefit to the members of the group.


What are sectional/interest pressure groups?

A sectional group is a pressure group which promotes the interests of a particular section of society. They tend to have a restricted membership as a result. Sectional groups tend to be permanent, because their members will always have interests to promote, and also will likely have strong contacts with government, as they are most likely to successfully promote their members interests.


Name 2 cause/promotional pressure groups.

Everytown for Gun Safety is a promotional pressure group as they are working towards a specific cause, being gun control and their objectives do not professionally or economically benefit them. They advocate for gun control and against gun violence.

The Christian Coalition of America is a promotional pressure group as their policies do not professionally or economically benefit them and they promote a particular cause, being Christianity. They advocates against policies the group perceives as discriminatory towards Christians in the US military, against public funding of abortion, for ending embryonic stem cell and several other policies.


Name 3 sectional/interest pressure groups.

Service Employees International Union is an interest group as the members consist of workers who are working in their own interest. They are a permanent group as they always have interests to promote.

The National Association of Realtors is an interest group as they work with the U.S. Congress and federal agencies to develop, advance, and implement legislative and regulatory policies affecting the real estate market, which benefits its members.

The American Civil Liberties Union is an interest group as they work with courts, and legislatures in order to promote their interests. They defend and preserve the individual rights and liberties guaranteed to every person in the country.


What are the 3 sides of the iron triangle?

In United States politics, the "iron triangle" is the policy-making relationship between the congressional committees, the bureaucracy, and interest groups.


What are PACs?

PACs are political action committees which pools campaign contributions from members and donates those funds to campaigns for or against candidates, ballot initiatives, or legislation. PACs are typically formed to represent business, labour, or ideological interests by individuals.


What are super PACs?

The role of a super PAC is similar to that of a traditional political action committee. A super PAC advocates for the election or defeat of candidates for federal office by purchasing television, radio, and print advertisements as well as other forms of media marketing. There are conservative super PACs and liberal super PACs.


Which court cases allowed the formation of super PACs?

Super PACs were made possible by two judicial decisions in 2010: the aforementioned Citizens United v. Federal Election Commission and, two months later, v. FEC.


Which movement in America first used economic boycotting effectively?

In 1955 Rosa Parks sparked the Montgomery Bus Boycott. The bus company lost 65% of their income and the boycott was the beginning of the Civil Rights Movement.


How can US pressure groups seek to influence the Supreme Court? Give example.

Pressure groups can influence courts by offering amicus curiae briefings. Through these, pressure groups can present their views to the court in writing before oral arguments are heard.

For example:
The American Civil Liberties Union fought a case in the supreme court 'Gloucester County School Board vs ACLU' to protect the rights of a transgender student.


Do UK or US trade unions wield more influence?

Figures from 2000 show that 29% of British workers are unionised, compared to just 13% of Americans. This means that UK trade unions wield more influence, as they have greater worker lobbying power.


Do UK vs US pressure groups have more opportunities to influence?

US pressure groups have more opportunities to influence as there are far more elective posts in the US than the UK. In the US, there are direct elections for the president and vice president, both houses of congress are elected, and there are all the elections at state level: governors etc. In the UK, only the House of Commons is elected.