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Flashcards in Pressure Groups Deck (70)
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1

Define Pluralism

Theory which suggests that political power in a society doesn't rest simply with the electorate or with the governing elite, but is distributed amongst a number of groups representing widely different interests within society

2

Which author argued in favour of Pluralism?

Robert Dahl 'Who Governs'
- Political party nominations, urban redevelopment and public education
- Democracy is all about compromise

3

Define Elitism

Theory which suggests that political power in a society rests with a small group who gain power through wealth, family status or intellectual superiority

4

Who argues that the US is an elitist state?

Wright Mills 'The Power Elite'
- US ruled by a small governing elite, ordinary Americans had little control over how they were governed as a result

5

What are the 2 types of Pressure Group?

Membership
Institutional

6

What are membership pressure groups? Give an example

Seek to represent individual Americans rather than organisations and groups
eg. NRA (single issue)
NAACP (sections of society)

7

What are institutional pressure groups? Give an example

Seek to represent other organisations and groups
- American Business Conference (business and trade groups)
- US Chamber of Commerce
- AFLCIO (trade unions)

8

What are the 5 functions of Pressure Groups?

Representation
Citizen Participation
Public Education
Agenda Building
Programme Monitoring

9

How do Pressure Groups represent?

Form an important link between the public and the politician
- Can represent citizens strongest views that a senator can't necessarily

10

Why is citizen participation a key function?

Many Americans seek far greater, more frequent participation in the democratic process
Participation in specific policy area (pro guns)

11

How do Pressure Groups educate?

Warn people of the possible dangers if issues aren't addressed, as well as the likely effect of decisions made by the government

12

Give an example of agenda building

Manufacturers and designers of CDs and computer software forced the government to take action against wide scale piracy of their goods in China
- promised to shut down such factories

13

What is programme monitoring?

Scrutinising and holding government to account in the implementation of policies to ensure that promises are fulfilled, policies delivered and regulations enforced

14

Give an example of programme monitoring on pharmaceutical drugs

Bush announced plans to allow for private retirement accounts in January 2005 at his SOTU address
- Club for Growth, conservative economic group, ran advertisements in favour
- AARP sent mail to members and organised forums against the bill

15

What are the 3 main reasons for joining a pressure group?

Material
Purposive
Solidarity

16

What are material reasons for joining a pressure group?

Rewards that individuals or companies get in return for their donations to a pressure group
- Sierra Club sends out a magazine with photo competitions
- AARP gives health care insurance to its members

17

What are purposive reasons for joining a pressure group?

Joining a group in order to be part of a movement or cause, to try and make society a better place
- Some join Amnesty International, in order to draw attention to torture and violations of human rights

18

What are solidarity reasons for joining a pressure group?

Social benefits brought about by interacting with like minded people.
- Joining National Aubudon Society allows watchers to join their local chapter, and so participate in local wildlife events

19

What are the 4 main methods used by Pressure groups?

Electioneering and Endorsement
Lobbying
Publicity
Organising grassroots activities

20

What are PACs

Political Action Committees - Groups that collect money from their members and then give it to candidates and political parties that support their interests

21

Of the Top 12 Contributees in the Senate in the 2012 election, how many lost?

1
Scott Brown of Massachusetts, a Republican in a highly democratic state

22

What were the donations and results of such with Dave Camp in 2012?

Received 3 million dollars
Won 63% of the vote in the Michigan 4 District

23

What were the donations and results of such with Dean Heller in 2012?

Won the Senate seat in Montana with 46% of the vote
- Recieved 2.1 million dollars

24

How does the League of Conservation endorse candidates?

Publishes a 'Dirty Dozen' every 2 years, which are the 12 candidates who have the worst record on environmental conservation

25

What was the effect of the League of Conservations list in 2012?

6 incumbents were defeated, only 1 incumbent was re-elected

26

How did the AARP affect a 2012 election in North Carolina?

Put 10 questions to two candidates - Incumbent Hayes and Challenger Kissel
Kissel agreed with all 10 of the AARPs questions, Hayes agreed with none
Kissel was endorsed and won the vote 55% to 45%

27

Define Lobbying

An attempt to exert influence on the policy-making, legislative or judicial process by individuals or organised groups

28

What is the K Street Corridor

A reference to the fact that most pressure groups are based in Washington, where they can directly lobby members of federal, state and local government

29

What kind of Pressure Groups provide voting cues?

Democrats - AFLCIO, NAACP
Republicans - American Conservative Union, US Chamber of Commerce

30

Give an example of issue advertising

AARP mounted a campaign against Bush's proposals to reform social security to create private retirement accounts. Ad tried to persuade viewers that the plan was an over reaction