Preventing and treating disease Flashcards Preview

Chapter 12 Communicable Disease > Preventing and treating disease > Flashcards

Flashcards in Preventing and treating disease Deck (18):

What are the two types of natural immunity?

-Natural active immunity.
-Natural passive immunity.


What is natural active immunity?

-When you meet a pathogen and antibodies are formed, produces T and B memory cells to fight it if it re invades for second time.
-It is active because the body has itself acted to produce antibodies and memory cells.


What is natural passive immunity?

-New born baby cannot make antibodies for the first couple months so some antibodies cross the placenta from mother to fetus, also breast milk contains colostrum which is very high in antibodies.
-The colostrum passes into babies blood and so will have antibody protection against diseases.
-Lasts until baby's immune system can produce it's own antibodies.


What are the two types of artificial immunity?

-Artificial passive immunity.
-Artificial active immunity.


What is artificial passive immunity?

-Antibodies formed for certain fatal diseases in one individual are extracted and injected into bloodstream of another individual.
-Gives temporary immunity.


What is artificial active immunity?

-Immune system is stimulated to make its own antibodies by a safe form of an antigen (vaccine) which is injected into blood stream (vaccination).


How do vaccinations work?

-Pathogen is made safe, vaccines contain; killed or inactive bacteria (pertussis), attenuated strains of live bacteria or virus (rubella), toxin molecules that have been detoxified (diphtheria) etc.
-Small amount of safe antigen injected into blood.
-Primary immune response triggered and body produces antibodies and memory cells.
-If you come into contact with pathogen again then secondary immune response is triggered.


What is an epidemic?

-Disease spreads rapidly to people at a local level.


What is a pandemic?

-Disease spreads rapidly across a number of countries.


What are vaccinations used for?

-Prevent epidemics, at beginning mass vaccination can prevent it spreading to wider population.


What is herd immunity?

-When significant number of people have been vaccinated and give protection to those who don't have immunity, because there is minimal opportunity for an outbreak to happen.


What are medicines used for?

-Treat communicable and non-communicable disease.
-Treat and cure symptoms.
-Painkillers, anti-inflammatories, anti-acids and antibiotics.


What is the source and action of penicillin?

-Extracted from mould growing on melons.
-Used as an antibiotic which kill bacteria.


What is the source and action of docetaxel?

-Derived from yew trees.
-Breast cancer treatment.


What is the source and action of aspirin?

-Compounds from sallow bark.
-Painkiller, and anti-inflammatory.


What is personalised medicine?

-Combination of drugs that work with your genetics and disease.
-Known as pharmacogenomics; combination of drugs and genetic.


How is antibiotic resistance developed?

-Random mutation during bacterial reproduction produces a bacterium that is not affected by antibiotics and so it is most likely to survive, which will pass on the resistance to daughter cells.
-Bacteria reproduce very quickly and so resistance will be very quick.


How can antibiotic resistance be reduced?

-Minimise use of antibiotics.
-Ensure every antibiotic course is completed.
-Good hygiene in hospitals, care homes and in general.