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1

Most iron is transported in the blood via the plasma carrier:

a. heme
b. erritin
c. transferrin
d. albumin

c. transferrin

2

A required prerequisite to the digestion of proteins is the HCl-dependent process called:

a. hydrolysis
b. evaporation
c. denaturation
d. distillation

c. denaturation

3

The true digestibility of dietary fatty acids is:

a. 65-75%
b. 75-85%
c. 85-95%
d. >95%

d. >95%

4

An example of a digestive enzyme secreted from the brush border of the microvilli to help with digestion is:

a. sucrase
b. protease
c. amylase
d. HCl

a. sucrase

5

Decreased plasma glucose levels stimulate ____ secretion by pancreatic alpha cells.

a. insulin
b. glucagon
c. glucocorticoids
d. epinephrin

b. glucagon

6

The hormone that is synthesized in adipose tissue and signals satiety is:

a. adiponectin
b. glucagon
c. leptin
d. ghrelin

c. leptin

7

The C677T base substitution in the gene that synthesizes the enzyme methyltetrahydrofolate reductase is a genetic abnormality called:

a. a base substitution
b. a genetic anomaly
c. a single nucleotide polymorphism
d. an epigenetic phenomena

c. a single nucleotide polymorphism

8

The structures of linoleic acid and gamma-linolenic acid differ in their:

a. chain lengths
b. double bond positions
c. number of double bonds
d. side chain moieties

c. number of double bonds

9

In the polypeptide chain of a protein, the sequential order of the amino acid is called the:

a. primary structure
b. secondary structure
c. tertiary structure
d. quarternary structure

a. primary structure

10

Vitamin reserves can become depleted because all vitamins are:

a. synthesized inefficiently
b. essential nutrients
c. metabolized quickly
d. excreted rapidly

b. essential nutrients

11

Nutrification is the:

a. addition of a nutrient to a food in order to assure the distribution of that nutrient to a target population
b. specific addition of thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, and iron to white flour
c. structural modification of complex carbs
d. addition of at least 25% of the RDA of a nutrient to a food product that has been designed to replace a meal or food item.

a. addition of a nutrient to a food in order to assure the distribution of that nutrient to a target population

12

Coenzyme A is derived from:

a. pantothenic acid
b. pyrodoxine
c. cobalamin
d. tetrahydrobiopterin

a. pantothenic acid

13

Ketones result from the metabolism of:

a. fatty acids
b. simple sugars
c. amino acids
d. complex carbs

a. fatty acids

14

Glycolysis is a metabolic process that involves:

a. glycogen synthesis
b. the conversion of glucose to glycogen
c. the conversion of glucose to pyruvate
d. the conversion of fatty acids to ATP

c. the conversion of glucose to pyruvate

15

Of beef, bacon, salmon, and broccoli, the food source with the greatest nutrient density (per 100kcal) for fat is:

a. beef
b. bacon
c. salmon
d. broccoli

b. bacon

16

The deficiency of which nutrient results in elevated levels of xanthurenate:

a. copper
b. B2
c. B6
d. iron

c. B6

17

Among the following foods, the nutrient density of vitamin D is greatest in:

a. cheese
b. salmon
c. green, leafy veg
d. beef

b. salmon

18

Fat-soluble vitamins are absorbed and then distributed throughout the body to cells via:

a. free fatty acids
b. lipases
c. lipoproteins
d. lymphatics

c. lipoproteins

19

Fluid balance is most significantly controlled by the minerals:

a. Ca and Mg
b. Cu and Zn
c. Ca and Ph
d. Na and K

d. Na and K

20

Quercetin protects ascorbic acid from:

a. oxidation
b. reduction
c. dehydrogenation
d. desaturation

a. oxidation

21

Beta-glucans are phytonutrients that are derived from various mushroom species and have specific beneficial effects for:

a. CVD
b. GI sxs and function
c. immune function
d. auditory function

c. immune function

22

Deglycyrrhizinated licorice is often used in the txt of:

a. peptic ulcers
b. pelvic pain
c. earache
d. sleep disorders

a. peptic ulcers

23

Garlic's active compound, allicin, inhibits:

a. muscle spasms
b. HMG CoA reductase
c. hydroxylase activity
d. constipation

b. HMG CoA reductase

24

Dietary proteins are of high biological value when they are obtained from:

a. fish, legumes, and whole milk
b. beef, pork, and cream cheese
c. white bread, vegetables, and legumes
d. eggs, chicken meats, and cheddar cheese

d. eggs, chicken meats, and cheddar cheese

25

The dietary change that is the most effective in contributing to a decrease in serum total cholesterol concentration is:

a. decrease cholesterol intake
b. decrease saturated fat intake
c. increase PUFA intake
d. increase MUFA intake

b. decrease saturated fat intake

26

26. The Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (TULs) were established to focus attention on intakes for both diet and nutritional supplementation. TULs are:

a. the maximum daily intake level that is not likely to cause a harmful effect
b. desired for most nutrients.
c. based on intakes from supplements and fortified foods. d. intake goals for all nutrients.

a. the maximum daily intake level that is not likely to cause a harmful effect

27

The IOM recommends supplementation or food fortification with which nutrient for the elderly?

a. Ca
b. Fe
c. biotin
d. B12

d. B12

28

Megaloblastic anemia of pregnancy usually results from a deficiency of:

a. Fe
b. oxytocin
c. antipernicious anemia factor
d. folacin

d. folacin

29

The most serious consequence of feeding "double strength" formula to an infant is likely to be:

a. sleepiness
b. colic
c. mental impairment
d. dehydration

d. dehydration

30

Except for when pregnant or lactating, the total quantity of nutrients and calories needed during ____ are greater than any other stage of life.

a. infancy
b. childhood
c. adolescence
d. aging

c. adolescence