Principles Flashcards Preview

Anatomy JC > Principles > Flashcards

Flashcards in Principles Deck (118):
1

What is the articulation between the temporal bone and the mandible called?

Temporomandibular joint

2

What are the three different joint classes?

Cartilaginous; 1. Synchondroses (hyaline cartligage) 2. Symphyses (fibroscartilage)

Fibrous; 1. Syndesmoses 2. Sutures

Synovial; when two or more bones directly connect with eachother

3

Give an example of a fibrous joint

Interouss membrane

4

Give an example of a cartlilagenous joint

Epiphyseal growth plate, intervertebral discs

5

Give an example of a synovial joint

Atlanto-axial (C vertebrae)

Hip- joint

Acromioclavicular

Elbow joint

Carpometacarpal (wrist joint)

Metacarpophalangeal (fingerz)

6

What is the role of the fontalles during fetal birth?

To allow the head to shrink in size when passing through the vagina

7

What is a slipped femoral epiphysis

Where the head of the femoral bone slips and breaks posteriorly

8

Describe a typical synovial joint

Articulatio point covered in hyaline cartilage, where joint supported by ligaments

Capsule wrapped around the jiont with deep synovial membrane that secretes synovial fluid

Joint cavity

9

What is a bursae

A fluid filled cavity that is an extension of the joint cavity

10

What type of joint is most stable and least stable likewise most and least mobile

Fibrous most stable least mobile

Cartilagenous; middle

Synovial best mobility least stable

11

What is the subluxation of a joint?

Reduced area of contact between articular surfaces (partial dislocation)

12

What are some common dislocation sites?

Knee, shoulder, TMJ, hip

13

What is flexion?

Lifting a joint upwards

14

What is abduction?

Movement away from medial plane (Abduction Abnormally away)

15

What is adduction?

Movement towards the median plane (e.g arms to side)

16

What is eversion?

Foot sole rotation away from the median plane

17

If going to do girl guide salute, what is the movement of the digits referred?

Opposition

18

In terms of the thumb what is the term for folding across the palm

Flexion

19

Describe the pericardium

Composed of two layers

Serous (secreting fuliud that lubricates the heart) this is in contact with the heart

Fibrous pericardium preventing overfilling

20

What is the base of the heart composed of

Also known as the posterior surface is made of the two atria

21

What is the anterior surface mainly formed by?

The right ventricle

22

What is the left and right border of the heart made of?

The left border by the left ventricle

The right border by the right atrium

23

Histologically what is the myocardium appear as

Spirals

24

What is the function of the fibrous cardiac skeleton?

Keeps the heart shape and valves open

Also acts as a insulator preventing impulse travelling down heart in the wrong direction and area

25

What is the average intraluminal pressure in an artery?

120/80mmhg

26

What is a collateral. Give an example of one

An alternative route of blood flow to an area due to anastomosis

Circle of willis in brain

27

What is the first bifurcation of the aorta?

The right and left coronary arteries

28

Naming from right to left what are the bifurcations of the arch aorta?

Branchiocephalic, left common carotid, left subclavian

29

Which nerve do the carotid sinus at the bifurcation of the common carotid send signals via?

The glossopharyngeal nerve

30

What do the bilateral posterior branches of the thoracic aorta supply?

The intercostal arteries supplying the chest wall

31

What do the unilateral anterior branches of the thoracic aorta supply?

The oesophagus, bronchus/ lung, pericardium

32

Name the arteries that make up the circle of willis

Right and left internal carotid arteries

The basilar artery (formed from two vertebral arteries)

33

What does the majority of the lymph drain into?

The left venous angle through the thoracic duct

34

What is endochondral ossification

Bone formation from hyaline cartilage

35

What is the function of the epiphyseal plate?

To allow longitudinal growth

36

What the outermost layer of compact bone? What is it composed of ?

Periosteum

Hyaline cartilage (fibrous CT)

37

Describe the structure of bone superficially to deep

Periosteum
Outer cortex, inner medulla, medulla

38

How do bones get supplied with blood?

By the periosteum being highly vascularised and the vessels piercing the medulla

39

What are the two environmental factors that will contribute to bony features?

An adjacent structure putting pressure on a bone

Adjacent structure developing

40

The skull is a bone of the appendicular skeleton True or false?

False; bone of the axial skeleton as it sits in the midline

41

What is the cranial vault?

The bones that enclose the brain posterior to the eye sockets

42

What are the types of le fort fractures?

Graded I-III depending on damage

I. Maxilla
II. Pyramid fracture with maxilla and nasal bones
III. Craniofacial disjunction (le fucked) complete separation of neurocranium and visceral cranium

43

Name the vertebrae regions from superior to inferior and how many vertebrae in each

Cervical (C1-7)
Thoracic (T1-12)
Lumbar (L1-L5)
Sacral (5 fused)
Cocxygeal (4 fused)

44

How many vertebrae in total?

33

45

On a vertebrae, what two parts make up the vertebral arch?

The pedicle- direct attachment to the body

The lamina; tip of the arch allowing processes to bind.

46

What part of the vertebrae allows attachemnt to other vertebrae?

The inferior and superior articular processes

47

What processes on the vertebrae allow attachment of ribs?

The right and left transverse processes

48

What does the spinous process allow attachment of?

Ligaments and muscles

49

What is the name for the joint between vertebrae?

The facet joint

50

What is the pectoral girdle composed of?

Composed of two scapular and clavicles

51

What is the pelvic girdle composed of?

Composed of the two hipbones and the sacrum

52

What are the three types of muscle?

Cardiac
Smooth
Skeletal

53

What is the structure of skeletal muscle ?

Striated, made of many fasciles-> fibres-> myofibrils-> actin and myosin

54

When are aponeurosis’s found?

When a muscle isnt attaching to a bone but a soft tissue. These are flattened tendons

55

Where are skeletal muscles usually found? In releation to fascia

Deep to the deep fascia

56

Give some examples of types of skeletal muscle

Biceps brachii
Orbicularis oculi
Deltoid
Abdominus

57

What is compartment syndrome?

Where there is increased pressure on a muscle compartment due to swelling, bleeding.

58

How do you treat compartment syndrome in an emergency?

With fasciotomy (slice the pressured area)

59

What are the limb compartments of the lower limbs

Thigh; 3; anterior, posterior and medial
Leg; 3; anterior, posterior and lateral

60

What are the limb compartments of the upper limbs

Arm; 2; anterior and posterior
Forearm; 2; anterior and posterior

61

What are the three origins of the deltoid muscle?

Spine of scapula
Acromion process of scapula
Lateral 1/3 clavicle

In order of most posterior to anterior

62

What is the definition of a stretch reflex?

One that protects the body from over stretching by enabling a sudden contraction

63

What bones make up the pelvic inlet

Sacrum, ilium and pubic bone

64

What bones make up the pelvic outlet

Coccyx, ishial and pubic bone

65

What is the pouch of douglas? What is its significance clinically?

It a dip in the peritoneum between the uterus and the rectum.

Most inferior part of the peritoneal cavity so if there is collection of fluid it will collect in this area in the upright female

66

Name the accessory organs of the female reproductive system

Uterine tubes, uterus and vagina

67

What are the three layers of the uterus wall

Perimetrium
Myometrium
Endometrium

68

During development where do the testis originate?

On the posterior wall of the abdominal cavity

69

How do the testis descend into the scrotum?

Through the inguinal canal

70

In what cell are sperm produced?

Seminiferous tubules

71

Describe the path of sperm from the seminiferous tubules to the penis

Sperm is passed to the rete testis, then to the head of the epididymis, this then becomes the vas deferens, the vas deferens then connect with the duct from the seminal gland which then form with the right/ left counter part in the prostate gland to then drain into the urethra.

72

What is contained within the spermatic cord

Vas deferens
Testicular artery
Pampiniform plexus of veins

73

What is the function of the seminal gland??

To produce seminal fluid

74

What are the muscles of mastication? What do they do?

Temporalis (close)
Pytergoid lateral (open)
Pytergoid medial (close)
Masseter (close)

75

If functioning of what facial muscle became lax, would cause drooling?

Orbicularis oris (circular smooth muscle around mouth)

76

What are the tonsils called that are commonly inflammed and people have removed?

Palatine tonsils

77

What cells line the oral cavity?

Stratified squamous epithelium

78

Where in the oral cavity is keratin present?

On the gingiva and hard palate ONLY

79

State the locations and names of the papillae on the tongue

Foliate papillae (lateral edge)

Vallate papillae (in V shape posteriorly)

Fungiform papillae (around tongue generally)

Filiform papillae (tip of tongue)

80

What papillae are involved with taste and which are involved with touch and temperature?

Taste buds; foliate, vallate and fungiform

Touch and temperature; filiform

81

Which bones do the extrinsic muscles of the tongue attach to?

Styloid process (of temporal bone)

Hyoid bone
Mandible
Palate

82

What is the name for the lubricant that aids swallowing and speech?

Mucin

83

What are the three major salivary glands?

Parotid (secretes into 2nd molar upper)
Submandibular (secretes via lingual caruncle)
Sublingual (through ducts in floor of mouth)

84

At what vertebral level does the oesophaphagus pierce the diaphragm?

T10

85

Describe peristalsis

Waves of simultaneous shortening of length of tract and narrowing or luminal diameter behind bolus and relaxation infront of

86

What is the function of the longitudinal and circular muscles within the GI tract?

Longitudinal layer shortens length
Circular decreases lumen diameter

87

What is the bodies response to a blockage in the GI?

Increasing pressure proximally to increase the likely hood of the blockage moving

88

If a patient describes a pain that comes and goes in a GI area what is this likely to be>

Colicky pain

89

What organs are classed in the foregut?

Oesophagus
Liver
Gall bladder
Spleen
1/2 pancreas

90

What organs are classed in the midgut?

Mid duodenum

2/3 transverse colon

1/2 pancreas

91

What organs are classed in the hindgut?

Distal 1/ 3 of transverse colon

Anal canal

92

What is the blood supply to the stomach? In terms of the abdominal aorta branches?

Coeliac trunk

93

What is the blood supply to the duodenum? In terms of the abdominal aorta branches?

Superior mesenteric artery

94

What is the blood supply to the anus? In terms of the abdominal aorta branches?

Inferior mesenteric artery

95

What is the venous drainage from the abdominal organs?

All drain to the hepatic portal vein

96

What veins is the hepatic portal vein made from? What do they drain?

Superior mesenteric vein (draining midgut) and splenic vein (drains foregut)

97

What does the inferior mesenteric vein drain?

Hindgut via the splenic vein

98

What is the CNS composed of

Brain and spinal cord

This is the central controller of the body

99

What is the PNS composed of?

All other nerve tissue not in the CNS. These are how actions occur

Spinal nerves
Cranial nerves
Autonomic nerves

100

What is a collection of nerve cell bodies termed?

A ganglion

101

What are the two main areas of the brain?

The cerebrum and the cerebellum

102

What are the folds of the brain called?

Gyri

103

What are the gaps between the gyrus in the brain termed?

Sulcus

104

What are the four lobes of the brain? How are they named??

Based on what bone they lie superior to hence;

Frontal , occipital, parietal and temporal lobes

105

Name all of the cranial nerves

Only; olfactory
Optometrists; optic
Occupy; occulamotor
Trees; trochlear
Through; trigeminal
Apple; abducent
Fields; facial
Very; vestibucochlear
Glossy; glossophargyneal
Vegetables; vagus
Sprout; spinal accessory
Here; hypoglossal

106

Which cranial nerve attaches to the pons?

Trigeminal

107

Where does the vagus nerve connect to the CNS?

Medulla

108

Where does the facial nerve connect to the CNS?

Junction (pons and medulla)

109

What is the pneumonic for remembering the foramen the CN pass through?

Cats. Cribiform plate
Only. Optic canal
Start. Superior orbital fissure
Running. Rotundum (foramen)
Once Ovale (foramen)
I Internal acoustic meatus
Jump Jugular (foramen)
High. Hypoglossal cannal

110

Which foramen does the spinal cord pass through

Foramen magnum

111

What dermatome supplies the male nipples and umbilicus ?

T4- nipple

T10- umbilicus

112

How is each segment of the dermatome innervated?

By a single pair of spinal nerves

113

What type of rami are the nerve plexuses made of ?

Anterior rami

114

What plexus innervates the diaphragm?

C3,4,5

115

What spinal nerves contribute to the brachial plexus

C5-t1

116

What 5 nerves supply the upper limb

Axillary
Median
Muscucutaneous
Radial
Ulnar

117

What vertebrae do sympathetic nerves exit through ?

T1- L2

118

What cranial nerves do the parasympathetics pass via?

Occulomotor. (III)

Facial. (VII)

Glossopharyngeal (IX )

Vagus (X )

And sacral spinal nerves