Flashcards in Principles Deck (118):
What is the articulation between the temporal bone and the mandible called?
What are the three different joint classes?
Cartilaginous; 1. Synchondroses (hyaline cartligage) 2. Symphyses (fibroscartilage)
Fibrous; 1. Syndesmoses 2. Sutures
Synovial; when two or more bones directly connect with eachother
Give an example of a fibrous joint
Give an example of a cartlilagenous joint
Epiphyseal growth plate, intervertebral discs
Give an example of a synovial joint
Atlanto-axial (C vertebrae)
Carpometacarpal (wrist joint)
What is the role of the fontalles during fetal birth?
To allow the head to shrink in size when passing through the vagina
What is a slipped femoral epiphysis
Where the head of the femoral bone slips and breaks posteriorly
Describe a typical synovial joint
Articulatio point covered in hyaline cartilage, where joint supported by ligaments
Capsule wrapped around the jiont with deep synovial membrane that secretes synovial fluid
What is a bursae
A fluid filled cavity that is an extension of the joint cavity
What type of joint is most stable and least stable likewise most and least mobile
Fibrous most stable least mobile
Synovial best mobility least stable
What is the subluxation of a joint?
Reduced area of contact between articular surfaces (partial dislocation)
What are some common dislocation sites?
Knee, shoulder, TMJ, hip
What is flexion?
Lifting a joint upwards
What is abduction?
Movement away from medial plane (Abduction Abnormally away)
What is adduction?
Movement towards the median plane (e.g arms to side)
What is eversion?
Foot sole rotation away from the median plane
If going to do girl guide salute, what is the movement of the digits referred?
In terms of the thumb what is the term for folding across the palm
Describe the pericardium
Composed of two layers
Serous (secreting fuliud that lubricates the heart) this is in contact with the heart
Fibrous pericardium preventing overfilling
What is the base of the heart composed of
Also known as the posterior surface is made of the two atria
What is the anterior surface mainly formed by?
The right ventricle
What is the left and right border of the heart made of?
The left border by the left ventricle
The right border by the right atrium
Histologically what is the myocardium appear as
What is the function of the fibrous cardiac skeleton?
Keeps the heart shape and valves open
Also acts as a insulator preventing impulse travelling down heart in the wrong direction and area
What is the average intraluminal pressure in an artery?
What is a collateral. Give an example of one
An alternative route of blood flow to an area due to anastomosis
Circle of willis in brain
What is the first bifurcation of the aorta?
The right and left coronary arteries
Naming from right to left what are the bifurcations of the arch aorta?
Branchiocephalic, left common carotid, left subclavian
Which nerve do the carotid sinus at the bifurcation of the common carotid send signals via?
The glossopharyngeal nerve
What do the bilateral posterior branches of the thoracic aorta supply?
The intercostal arteries supplying the chest wall
What do the unilateral anterior branches of the thoracic aorta supply?
The oesophagus, bronchus/ lung, pericardium
Name the arteries that make up the circle of willis
Right and left internal carotid arteries
The basilar artery (formed from two vertebral arteries)
What does the majority of the lymph drain into?
The left venous angle through the thoracic duct
What is endochondral ossification
Bone formation from hyaline cartilage
What is the function of the epiphyseal plate?
To allow longitudinal growth
What the outermost layer of compact bone? What is it composed of ?
Hyaline cartilage (fibrous CT)
Describe the structure of bone superficially to deep
Outer cortex, inner medulla, medulla
How do bones get supplied with blood?
By the periosteum being highly vascularised and the vessels piercing the medulla
What are the two environmental factors that will contribute to bony features?
An adjacent structure putting pressure on a bone
Adjacent structure developing
The skull is a bone of the appendicular skeleton True or false?
False; bone of the axial skeleton as it sits in the midline
What is the cranial vault?
The bones that enclose the brain posterior to the eye sockets
What are the types of le fort fractures?
Graded I-III depending on damage
II. Pyramid fracture with maxilla and nasal bones
III. Craniofacial disjunction (le fucked) complete separation of neurocranium and visceral cranium
Name the vertebrae regions from superior to inferior and how many vertebrae in each
Sacral (5 fused)
Cocxygeal (4 fused)
How many vertebrae in total?
On a vertebrae, what two parts make up the vertebral arch?
The pedicle- direct attachment to the body
The lamina; tip of the arch allowing processes to bind.
What part of the vertebrae allows attachemnt to other vertebrae?
The inferior and superior articular processes
What processes on the vertebrae allow attachment of ribs?
The right and left transverse processes
What does the spinous process allow attachment of?
Ligaments and muscles
What is the name for the joint between vertebrae?
The facet joint
What is the pectoral girdle composed of?
Composed of two scapular and clavicles
What is the pelvic girdle composed of?
Composed of the two hipbones and the sacrum
What are the three types of muscle?
What is the structure of skeletal muscle ?
Striated, made of many fasciles-> fibres-> myofibrils-> actin and myosin
When are aponeurosis’s found?
When a muscle isnt attaching to a bone but a soft tissue. These are flattened tendons
Where are skeletal muscles usually found? In releation to fascia
Deep to the deep fascia
Give some examples of types of skeletal muscle
What is compartment syndrome?
Where there is increased pressure on a muscle compartment due to swelling, bleeding.
How do you treat compartment syndrome in an emergency?
With fasciotomy (slice the pressured area)
What are the limb compartments of the lower limbs
Thigh; 3; anterior, posterior and medial
Leg; 3; anterior, posterior and lateral
What are the limb compartments of the upper limbs
Arm; 2; anterior and posterior
Forearm; 2; anterior and posterior
What are the three origins of the deltoid muscle?
Spine of scapula
Acromion process of scapula
Lateral 1/3 clavicle
In order of most posterior to anterior
What is the definition of a stretch reflex?
One that protects the body from over stretching by enabling a sudden contraction
What bones make up the pelvic inlet
Sacrum, ilium and pubic bone
What bones make up the pelvic outlet
Coccyx, ishial and pubic bone
What is the pouch of douglas? What is its significance clinically?
It a dip in the peritoneum between the uterus and the rectum.
Most inferior part of the peritoneal cavity so if there is collection of fluid it will collect in this area in the upright female
Name the accessory organs of the female reproductive system
Uterine tubes, uterus and vagina
What are the three layers of the uterus wall
During development where do the testis originate?
On the posterior wall of the abdominal cavity
How do the testis descend into the scrotum?
Through the inguinal canal
In what cell are sperm produced?
Describe the path of sperm from the seminiferous tubules to the penis
Sperm is passed to the rete testis, then to the head of the epididymis, this then becomes the vas deferens, the vas deferens then connect with the duct from the seminal gland which then form with the right/ left counter part in the prostate gland to then drain into the urethra.
What is contained within the spermatic cord
Pampiniform plexus of veins
What is the function of the seminal gland??
To produce seminal fluid
What are the muscles of mastication? What do they do?
Pytergoid lateral (open)
Pytergoid medial (close)
If functioning of what facial muscle became lax, would cause drooling?
Orbicularis oris (circular smooth muscle around mouth)
What are the tonsils called that are commonly inflammed and people have removed?
What cells line the oral cavity?
Stratified squamous epithelium
Where in the oral cavity is keratin present?
On the gingiva and hard palate ONLY
State the locations and names of the papillae on the tongue
Foliate papillae (lateral edge)
Vallate papillae (in V shape posteriorly)
Fungiform papillae (around tongue generally)
Filiform papillae (tip of tongue)
What papillae are involved with taste and which are involved with touch and temperature?
Taste buds; foliate, vallate and fungiform
Touch and temperature; filiform
Which bones do the extrinsic muscles of the tongue attach to?
Styloid process (of temporal bone)
What is the name for the lubricant that aids swallowing and speech?
What are the three major salivary glands?
Parotid (secretes into 2nd molar upper)
Submandibular (secretes via lingual caruncle)
Sublingual (through ducts in floor of mouth)
At what vertebral level does the oesophaphagus pierce the diaphragm?
Waves of simultaneous shortening of length of tract and narrowing or luminal diameter behind bolus and relaxation infront of
What is the function of the longitudinal and circular muscles within the GI tract?
Longitudinal layer shortens length
Circular decreases lumen diameter
What is the bodies response to a blockage in the GI?
Increasing pressure proximally to increase the likely hood of the blockage moving
If a patient describes a pain that comes and goes in a GI area what is this likely to be>
What organs are classed in the foregut?
What organs are classed in the midgut?
2/3 transverse colon
What organs are classed in the hindgut?
Distal 1/ 3 of transverse colon
What is the blood supply to the stomach? In terms of the abdominal aorta branches?
What is the blood supply to the duodenum? In terms of the abdominal aorta branches?
Superior mesenteric artery
What is the blood supply to the anus? In terms of the abdominal aorta branches?
Inferior mesenteric artery
What is the venous drainage from the abdominal organs?
All drain to the hepatic portal vein
What veins is the hepatic portal vein made from? What do they drain?
Superior mesenteric vein (draining midgut) and splenic vein (drains foregut)
What does the inferior mesenteric vein drain?
Hindgut via the splenic vein
What is the CNS composed of
Brain and spinal cord
This is the central controller of the body
What is the PNS composed of?
All other nerve tissue not in the CNS. These are how actions occur
What is a collection of nerve cell bodies termed?
What are the two main areas of the brain?
The cerebrum and the cerebellum
What are the folds of the brain called?
What are the gaps between the gyrus in the brain termed?
What are the four lobes of the brain? How are they named??
Based on what bone they lie superior to hence;
Frontal , occipital, parietal and temporal lobes
Name all of the cranial nerves
Sprout; spinal accessory
Which cranial nerve attaches to the pons?
Where does the vagus nerve connect to the CNS?
Where does the facial nerve connect to the CNS?
Junction (pons and medulla)
What is the pneumonic for remembering the foramen the CN pass through?
Cats. Cribiform plate
Only. Optic canal
Start. Superior orbital fissure
Running. Rotundum (foramen)
Once Ovale (foramen)
I Internal acoustic meatus
Jump Jugular (foramen)
High. Hypoglossal cannal
Which foramen does the spinal cord pass through
What dermatome supplies the male nipples and umbilicus ?
How is each segment of the dermatome innervated?
By a single pair of spinal nerves
What type of rami are the nerve plexuses made of ?
What plexus innervates the diaphragm?
What spinal nerves contribute to the brachial plexus
What 5 nerves supply the upper limb
What vertebrae do sympathetic nerves exit through ?