Principles of Neuroscience Lecture 4, Development of the nervous system Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Principles of Neuroscience Lecture 4, Development of the nervous system Deck (19)
0

What are the layers in an embryo?

Trilaminar embryo:
Endoderm
Mesoderm
Ectoderm

1

From which cells does the neural tube form?

Neural plate cells form a layer on the ectoderm

2

Describe the process of neurulation

The neural plate cells on either side of the primitive streak rise up and fuse at the top, forming a tube. This tube is called the neural tube. This goes on to form the spinal cord.

3

What disorders can occur with neurulation, and how do they arise?

When the neural tube does not close up all the way up the spine.
This causes severe disorders such as:
Spina bifida (lumbar region)
Anencephaly (head)

4

Describe the sections that the developing brain forms

Prosencephalon: forebrain
Mesencephalon: midbrain
Rhombencephalon: hindbrain
Caudal neural tube: spinal cord

5

Describe the further segmentation of the prosencephalon

Telencephalon
Diencephalon

6

Describe the further segmentation of the rhombencephalon

Two greater sections :
Myloencephalon
Metencephalon

7 sections all up

7

What does the spinal cord form out of?

The caudal neural tube

8

What is the name for the cells present at the top of the neural tube during development?
What is their function?

Neural crest cells. These cells migrate and go on to form many important cell types

9

What is Somite?

Developing muscle and bone

10

Describe the process of neural crest migration

Neural crest cells follow specific paths through the embryo
- under the skin to form the dorsal root ganglia
- through the Somite to form sympathetic ganglia

Eg. Innervation of the gut; enteric nervous system

11

How does the cortex / cells of the brain form?

It starts with the neuroepithelium that is one cell thick.
This neuroepithelium adds cells that migrate away to form the cortex.

12

What is the ventricular zone?

Down the bottom, where neurons are being born. Stem cells are here

13

What are radial glia?

Their processes act as a guide along which neurons migrate down to form the cortex.

14

What does the notochord go on to form?

The centre of the vertebral body

15

What is sonic hedgehog?

Chemical that sets up a gradient and thus polarity in the neural tube, indicating where neurons should grow.

16

Describe the process of axonal growth

Axons aren't present when the neuron first develops

17

What are growth cones made out of?

They are a dynamic cytoskeleton structure

18

How to growth cones know where to go?

Chemical gradients steer the movement

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