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Flashcards in Principles Of Organisation Deck (108):
1

Cells?

The building blocks of living things eg stem cell

2

Tissues?

A group of cells with similar structure and function eg muscle

3

Organs?

Groups of different tissues working together eg heart

4

Organ systems?

Groups of organs that perform a particular function eg circulatory system

5

Organisms?

A whole living thing eg a plant or an animal

6

What do large multicellular organisms develop?

Systems for exchanging materials

Big multicellular systems eg animals like mammals have several different organ systems for absorbing eg gut transporting eg blood system and exchanging materials eg lungs

7

What happens during the development of a multicellular organism?

The cells differentiate so that they can perform different functions

Specialised cells form tissues & 1 or more types of tissues are structured to form organs and two or more organs can work together in an organ system

8

What is a tissue?

Group of specialised cells with similar structure and carry out a particular function

9

Muscular tissue?

Contract to bring about movement eg contraction and relaxation to move limbs

10

Glandular tissue?

Produce and secrete substances such as enzymes to enable chemical reactions and hormones to control certain functional features of an organism

11

Epithelial tissue?

Covers some parts of the body including the inside of the gut and the skin

12

What are organs?

Different tissues acting together to perform some particular function

13

Muscular tissue in stomach?

Churn contents and break up the food into smaller chunks to aid digestion

14

Glandular tissue stomach?

Produce digestive juices containing enzymes to break food down at the molecular level

15

Epithelial tissue stomach?

Covers outside and inside of the stomach

16

What are organ systems?

Groups of organs that work together to perform a particular function

17

An epithelial cell size?

30 to 60 micrometers

18

Villus size?

0.5 - 1.6mm

19

Small intestine size?

6m or 20ft

20

Smooth muscle tissue stomach?

Contracts to churn food

21

Glandular tissue stomach organ?

Produced acids & enzymes

22

Nervous tissue stomach?

Controls activities in the stomach

23

Blood stomach?

Tissue made up of plasma, RBC, WBC, platelets etc

24

Columnar epithelium?

Goblet cells secrete mucus
protects stomach lining

25

Exchange of material is made easier by?

Increased surface area

Good blood supply and flow

Increased concentration gradient

26

SA TO V RATIO?

volume = side length3

surface area = 6x(side length)2

SA:V = (surface area/volume) : 1

27

Increasing the size...

Decreases the SA to v ratio

28

Why do large organisms need a transport system?

- the SA isn't big enough to supply needs of body
-mammals are large so need mass transport system to supply feels with materials
-specialised exchange surfaces are needed to absorb nutrients, respiratory gases and remove excretory products
-transport system needed to transport materials between exchange surfaces and cells
-the more active & bigger organism, the more need for a specialised transport system with pump

29

What are substances transported in and out of organisms?

O2, CO2, water, dissolved food molecules, mineral ions and urea

30

How are dissolved materials transported around the body?

Blood

31

RBC?

small, red, disc shaped (biconcave disc)

32

WBC phagocyte?

slightly bigger, loped nucleus

33

WBC lymphocyte?

has a large nucleus

34

Blood plasma?

straw coloured liquid

35

Components of blood?

RBC
WBC
platelets
minerals (iron, calcium)
hormones
water
plasma
vitamins (a,c,e)
heat
urea (waste product formed in liver from breakdown of proteins)
oxygen
co2
fatty acids & glycerol
glucose
amino acids
proteins (antibodies)
last 4 products of digestion

36

What are platelets?

Fragments involved in the clotting of blood

37

Amount of RBC?

5 million in 1mm3

38

Function of RBC?

pick up oxygen from lungs and carry to tissues and cells where needed

39

Adaptions of RBC?

biconcave discs (pushed in at both sided) give increased SA to V ratio over which oxygen can diffuse

contain pigment called haemoglobin (red) which can carry oxygen

no nucleus so more space to pack in molecules of haemoglobin

40

What is haemoglobin?

Large protein molecule folded around 4 iron atoms(purply/red the colour of blood in veins)

41

Formation of oxyhaemoglobin?

In high concentration of oxygen the haemoglobin reacts with oxygen to form it (scarlet in colour causing blood in most arteries to be bright red)

42

Reverse of oxyhaemoglobin?

In areas of low oxygen concentration the reaction reverses and it splits back to oxygen and haemoglobin & the oxygen diffuses to cells where it's needed

43

What happens if your diet lacks iron?

Not enough red blood cells are produced and you become anaemia

44

Artery?

carry blood away from heart
bright red (oxygenated)
high pressure & no valves
small lumen, thick layer of muscle & elastic fibres, thick walls

45

Vein?

carry blood toward the heart
deep purply-red (deoxygenated)
low pressure & valves to prevent back flow of blood
large lumen, thin walls & often have valves

46

Capillary?

blood flows through them, allows exchange of substances & connects veins to arteries
bright red (artery) to purply red (veins)
v low pressure & no valves
walls 1 cell thick
tiny vessel with narrow lumen

47

In the capillaries what happens?

Body cells are bathed in tissue fluid, dissolved food eg glucose, amino acids, fatty acids and glycerol, o2 and co2 and exchanged

48

What happens to blood coming from the heart?

Flows through arteries and branches into the smaller arterial and eventually into capillaries, which are thing walls so exchange of body cells and the blood of substances takes place here

49

How are waste products removed?

Travel via venules which join to form veins which return blood to heart

50

The heart?

Made of cardiac muscle

pumps blood around the body beat 70 x per minute

coronary arteries supply heart with oxygen and glucose for respiration which releases energy for contraction of the heart

51

What does blood flowing towards the heart do to valves in veins?

Passes easily through the valves

52

What does blood flowing away from the heart dies to valves in veins?

Pushes valves closed and so blood is prevented from flowing any further in this direction

53

What does the pulmonary artery do?

Takes deoxygenated blood to lungs

54

What does the aorta do?

Carries oxygenated blood around the body

55

What is the trip of blood?

Vena cava
Right atrium
Tricuspid valve
Right ventricle
Semi lunar valve
Pulmonary artery
Pulmonary vein
Left atrium
Bicuspid valve
Left ventricle
Aortic valve
Aorta
All around the body

56

What is the double circulatory system?

Important in warm blooded animals

Very efficient

The right ventricle pumps blood to the lungs where gas exchange takes place, this causes a drop in blood pressure so it is returned to the heart, fully oxygenated and the left ventricle then pumps it with a greater force to difference parts of the body

More areas of the body receive fully oxygenated blood quickly

57

The pacemaker?

The natural resting heart rate is controlled by a group of cells located in the wall of the right atrium that act as a pacemaker. Artificial pacemakers are electrical devices used to correct irregularities in the heart rate.

58

The cardiac cycle?

- the heart beat begins when the heart muscles relax and blood flows into the atria

-the atria then contract and the valves open to allow blood into the ventricles

-the ventricles contract forcing the blood to leave the heart through the arteries. At the same time, the atria are relaxing and once again filling with blood

-the cycle then repeats

59

What are the coronary arteries?

The coronary arteries branch over the wall of the heart from the outside and supply the heart muscle itself with oxygen and glucose, there are normally 4 or 5 branches

60

What is CHD?

When layers of fatty material build up inside the coronary arteries, narrowing them

61

Order of organisation?

Cells
Tissues
Organs
Organ systems
Organisms

62

Consequences of CHD?

Reduces blood or no blood flow to area of heart muscle, the heart may beat out of rhythm and it may cause a heart attack or a cardiac arrest

63

Treatment of CHD?

CABG, blood vessels are seen into the coronary artery to bypass blockage. A balloon can be inserted to open up the blockage and stents are metal mesh tubes that may be places in the artery and inserted with a tiny balloon to push open the artery.

64

What are faulty valves?

When valves might not open fully or the heart valve might develop a leak

65

What are consequences of faulty valves?

Person affected can become breathless of in severe cases die if problem is not solved

66

Treatment of faulty valves?

They can be replaced. Mechanical valves last a long time but you have to take mediation to prevent blood clotting. Biological valves are from animals such as pigs or cattle and last without medication but only for around 15 years. Also people may be ethically or religiously against use of animals.

67

Artificial hearts?

For donar heart you have to wait for tissue match and artificial hearts can be used to keep patients alive whilst waiting for a donar or as an aid to recovery

68

Pros and cons of artificial heart?

Pros

-keep patient alive
-no waiting for donar
-live relatively normal life

Cons

-blood clots
-drugs needed to prevent
-temporary
-noisy & heavy

69

Pros and cons of transplant?

Pros

-permenant
-last longtime
-normal life

Cons

-need anti reaction medicine
-body may reject
-long wait

70

Statins?

Reduce blood cholesterol levels which slow down rate of fatty material deposit, reduces risk of CHD

71

Reducing risks of CHD?

healthy & balanced die
physically active & regular excessive
healthy weight
don't smoke
minimum alcohol
take correct medication
keep blood pressure & diabetes controlled

72

Nasal cavity?

Nose and mouth

73

Alveoli?

air sack (walls are 2 cell thick)

74

Factors affecting rate of diffusion?

Temperature
Surface area
Thickness of diffusion pathway
Concentration gradient

75

Oxygen?

Inhaled 20%
Exhaled 16%

76

CO2?

Inhaled 0.03%
Exhaled 4%

77

Water vapour?

Inhaled less
Exhaled more

78

What are the lungs two main functions?

Mechanical ventilation (breathing)
Gas exchange

79

When we inhale?

Muscle in ribs contract
Ribs move up and out
Diaphragm contracts and flattens
Volume increases, pressure decreases
Air rushes in to equalise pressure

80

When we exhale?

Muscles in ribs relax
Ribs move down and in
Diaphragm domes and relaxes
Decreases volume, increases pressure
Air is forced out of lungs

81

The lungs are efficient because?

Folded so larger surface area

Walls of alveoli 1 cell thick - shortens diffusion distance

Alveolus surrounded by blood capillaries so there is good blood supply and blood is constantly taking oxygen away and adding co2 which helps maintain a maximum concentration gradient between blood & air in alveoli

Alveolus is ventilated, removing waste carbon dioxide and replenishing oxygen levels to help maintain maximum concentration gradient between the blood and air in the alveoli

82

Stomach?

Muscular wall churns food. Produced HCl (kills bacteria) and provides optimum conditions for pepsin (protease enzyme)

83

Pancreas?

Produces trypsin (protease enzyme) carbohydrase and lipase enzymes

84

Rectum?

Faeces stored here

85

Small intestine?

Produced carbohydrase, protease, lipase enzymes. Walls have villi and microvilli to increase SA for absorption. Absorption of soluble food occurs.

86

Large intestine?

Water reabsorbed from undigested food, producing faeces

87

Gall bladder?

Stores bile

88

Liver?

Produces bile

89

Oesophagus?

long, muscular tube that squeezes good down to the stomach (peristalsis)

90

Salivary glands?

Secrete the digestive juice amylase (a carbohydrase)

91

What are enzymes?

Enzymes are biological catalysts and they speed up the rate of a chemical reaction but are not used up and they are proteins. Long chains of amino acids are folded to produce a molecule with a specific shape

92

What does this specific shape allow?

It allows other molecules (substrates) to fit into the enzyme protein. We call this the active site. This means the shape of the enzyme is vital for how it works

93

Enzymes are involved in...

Building large molecules from lots of small ones

Changing one molecule info another

Breaking down large molecules into smaller ones o

94

What is the enzyme reaction equation?

Substrates --------> product(s)
Enzyme

95

How do enzymes work?

Substrate (reactant) fits into shape of the enzyme like lock and key and they bind together (enzyme-substrate complex). Reaction take place rapidly and products are released and the substrate splits into products and leave the active site.

96

Why do enzymes work best under specific conditions of temperature and pH?

Because anything which affects the shape of the active site also affects the ability of the enzyme to speed up a reaction

97

Active site?

The special site in the structure of an enzyme where the substrate binds

98

Activation energy?

The energy needed for a chemical reaction to take place

99

Enzyme?

A biological catalyst

100

Catalyst?

A substance which changes the rate of a chemical reaction without being changed itself

101

Carbohydrates?

Go to sugar via carbohydrase

eg amylase found in saliva breaks down starch to glucose

102

Protein?

To amino acids via protease

eg pepsin in the stomach, breaks down protein to amino acids

103

Lipids?

To fatty acids and glycerol via lipase

104

Lipase pH decrease?

lipase digests fat to produce fatty ACIDS

105

Sodium carbonate?

Alkali

106

Enzymes best temp?

37 degrees

107

What happens in body?

lipase likes alkali (small intestine)
stomach is acidic (HCL acid)
bile squirted (alkali)

108

Bile?

-emulsified fats, breaks them into smaller droplets for larger SA which increases rate of digestion of fat by lipase
-neutralises the acid produced by stomach to provide ideal alkaline conditions for enzymes