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Flashcards in principles of reproduction Deck (41):
1

which cells produce/secrete testosterone in the blood

leydig cell

2

what are the key functions of sertoli cells

support germ cells, signal spermatogenesis, regulate pituitary function

3

what cell produce androgen binding protein

sertoli cells

4

what is the key regulator of testosterone production in leydig cells

LH

5

what is the key regulator of Serotoli cell proliferation and seminiferoutubule growth

FSH

6

which hormone regulates pulsatile release of gonadotropin?

GnRH

7

inhibin B is produced by what cell?

sertoli cells in resposne to FSH

8

what hormone blocks effects of inhibin B

Activin

9

what proteins do testosterone bound to, and in what form do they have to convert to in order for appropriate binding for the diff receptors?

albumin

sex hormone binding globulin

Conversion to DHT andAndrogen-binding protein(from serotoli cells)

Convert to estradiol and bind to estrogen receptors

10

DHT hormone function

sexual develop't, pubic and underarm hair developt, activity of sebaceous glands

11

estradiol hormone function

epiphyseal closure, suppress osteoporosis, feedback regulation at hypothalamus

12

which hormone has anabolic effects in muscle/bone

testosterone

13

which hormone form secondary sex characteristics?

testosterone

14

Spermiogenesis

maturation of spermatids

15

Maturation of spermatid consists of what

nuclear condensing, formation of acrosome, positioning for tail formation

16

Spermiation

release of spermatid from sertoli cells into lumen

17

how long is the process of spermatogonia to spermatoza

70 days

18

what hormone promotes initation and maintenace of spermatogenesis

testosterone

19

what two testosterone are needed for complete maturation of spermatozoa?

FSH and testosterone

20

what does the follicle consist of?

internal granulosa cells and "external" theca cells

21

Follicular phase (day 1-ovulation)

follicle development

follicular phase is followed by ovulation

22

Luteal Phase

after ovulation:
-corpus luteum forms temporary endocrine gland to secrete estradiol and progesterone via
-followed by menses
-endocrine function (estradiol and progesterone)

23

what does the theca and granulosa cell synthesize and secrete during ovarian cycle

progesterone, androgen, estrogen

24

what does the follicle produce in follicular phase?

estradiol and inhibin (esp inhibin B in the beginning)

25

what controls estradiol production

FSH and LH

26

what does a rise in estradiol produce in order for follicle developt

low amp, high frequency LH secretion

27

what is required and induces ovulation

estradiol positive feedback causing surge in LH**

28

what regulates LH and FSH secretion

Inhibin A&B

29

how is estradiol produced during follicular phase

in response to LH--->theca cells-->androstenedione-->convert to estradiol in granulosa cells controled by FSH

30

What marks OVULATION?

INCREASE in Basal body temp because progesterone is thermogenic and will produce an increase in BBT

31

what regulates gonadotropin release

inhibin B feedback

32

what causes a decrease in LH release during luteal phase

rise in progesterone--negative feedback

33

what does the spike in Inhibin B indicate

turning off ovulation process

34

what is the role of Inhibin A

brings LH and FSH back down to lower levels

35

when is prostaglandin production present

menstruation phase

36

in which phase does estrogen and progesterone decline? and what response does this cause?

in menstrual phase, result release of proteolytic enzymes that cause lysis of tissue and an increase of prostgladndin production

37

what hormone replaces LH during implantation

hCG

38

Progesterone role during implantation

suppress uterin contraction by inhibiting prostaglandin production and aids immune response

39

estrogen role during implantation

stimulate uterine, mammary, and vaginal epithelium growth

40

when does the frequency of LH secretion decrease? why?

Luteal phase, due to negative feedback of progesterone

41

what space allows for diffusion of nutrients between fetus and mother

syncytiotrophoblast