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Flashcards in Problem areas Deck (112):
1

Symbolic interactionism

Focuses on interaction between individuals and their environment/society; reality is socially constructed and agreed upon.

2

Lazarus theory

Interpretation of events precedes physiological arousal and emotion

3

Opponent process theory

Motivation/emotion: emotions exist in pairs, when one is experienced it's opposite is suppressed. Prolonged exposure to the stimulus leads to a balancing of both emotions

Visual perception: complementary colors are encoded by the same neurons, explains afterimage effect

4

Labeled lines model

One taste cell responds to one kind of taste and sends dedicated axonal projections to particular parts of the brain. Receptor does not determine flavor

5

Appraisal theory

Emotions arise from evaluation of an event or circumstance. Primary: valence
Secondary: resources

Stress = negative + insufficient resources

Coping
Reappraisal

6

Antibody dissociation constant

High Kd = low affinity
Low Kd = high affinity

More exposure leads to higher affinity and lower Kd

7

Mechanoreceptor types

Constant pressure: Ruffini and Merkel

Application/removal of pressure: Meissner and Pacinian

8

Nonpolar uncharged amino acids

FIG MAP VLW

9

Polar uncharged amino acids

STYNQC

10

Negative/acidic amino acids

ED

11

Positive/basic amino acids

HRK

12

Competitive inhibition

Vmax unchanged
Km increased

13

Non competitive inhibition

Vmax decreased
Km unaffected

14

Uncompetitive inhibition

Vmax decreased
Km decreased

15

Catalytic efficiency

Kcat/Km
Affected by inhibitors but not substrate concentration

16

Ectoderm becomes

Nervous system, pituitary gland, adrenal medulla, cornea and lens, epidermis, nasal/oral/anal epithelium

17

Mesoderm becomes

Muscle, bone, connective tissue, CV system, lymphatic system, urogenital organs, dermis

18

Endoderm becomes

GI epithelium, GI glands, respiratory epithelium, urogenital epithelium, bladder

19

Sleep cycle wave types

Awake: beta and alpha
Stage 1: theta
Stage 2: sleep spindles, K complexes
Stages 3 and 4: delta waves
REM sleep: jagged beta waves

20

Schizoid personality disorder

Lack of interest in close relationships, unaffected emotionally by interactions with others

21

Schizoaffective disorder

Combo of +/- symptoms with a major depressive, manic, or mixed episode

Delusions and hallucinations also occur outside of mood episodes

Must occur for longer than a month for diagnosis

22

Schizophrenia

+ and - symptoms for more than six months, significant impact on functioning, complete remission not possible without medication

23

Schizophreniform disorder

At least one + symptom, may also have - symptoms. Occurs for more than one month but less than six months

24

Brief psychotic disorder

Presence of + symptoms for more than a day but less than a month. No negative symptoms

25

Delusional disorder

Possessing a false belief not due to culture that persists despite evidence that it is false. Diagnosable if it occurs for greater than a month

Counter evidence is disregarded or distorted

26

Attribution theory

Attempting to understand the behavior of others by attributing feelings, beliefs, and intentions to them

27

Trust vs. mistrust (Erikson)

Age 0-1
Freud: oral

28

Autonomy vs. shame and doubt (Erikson)

Age 1-3
Freud: anal

29

Initiative vs. guilt (Erikson)

Age 3-6
Freud: phallic

30

Industry vs. inferiority (Erikson)

Age 6-12
Freud: latency

31

Identity vs. role confusion (Erikson)

Age 12-18
Freud: genital

32

Intimacy vs. isolation (Erikson)

Age 18-35
Freud: genital

33

Generativity vs. stagnation (Erikson)

Age 35-60
Freud: genital

34

Integrity vs. despair (Erikson)

Age 65+
Freud: genital

35

Functionalism

Emile Durkheim

Society is like an organism; if one part changes, the rest must compensate. Focused on society as a whole, not individual interactions. Emphasizes stability through universal agreement upon norms

36

Pygmalion effect

High expectations lead to better performance

Specific occurrence of the self-fulfilling prophecy

Synonymous w/ Rosenthal effect

Opposite is golem effect

37

Procedural bias

Issues pertaining to how researchers collect information or responses in a study; such as offering incentives to subjects

38

Hallucinogens

LSD, pot, ketamine, PCP

Hallucinations, intense emotion, increased heart rate

Typically act by disrupting serotonin or glutamate signaling; THC mimics endogenous cannabinoids

39

Osmotic pressure

Proportional to dilute concentration, i.e. higher osmotic pressure draws water into a system

Colloid osmotic pressure = oncotic pressure = component of osmotic pressure exerted by proteins; opposes hydrostatic pressure

40

Stimulants

Cocaine, nicotine, caffeine, amphetamines

Increased energy, RR, HR, pupil dilation (mydriasis), rapid speech, mood boost

Usually increase release or decrease reputake of serotonin, dopamine, and/or norepinephrine

41

Realistic conflict theory

Explains how hostility arises out of competition for shared resources, leading to our group prejudice.

Ex. Sherif's Robbers' Cove experiment

42

Dual store model

Info is moved from STM to LTM through rehearsal

43

Atavism

Reemergence of a genotype or phenotype after many generations

44

Depth-of-processing model

Info moved from STM to LTM after being processed at deeper levels of analysis

45

Amphoteric

A substance that can act as an acid or a base (ex. conjugate base of polyprotic acids)

46

Depressants

Heroin, barbiturates, opiates (codeine, fentanyl, methadone, oxycodone, morphine), alcohol

Slow down NS, disinhibition, slurred speech, impaired motor function, pupil constriction (miosis)

Usually act by stimulation of GABAergic and dopaminergic systems; opiates mimic endorphins

47

Elaboration likelihood model

Theory of persuasion

Central route: focus on merits and qualities of the message, appeal to logic and reason, produces more long-lasting change

Peripheral route: focus on appeal of the source (attractiveness, charisma, credibility, etc.), produces short-term change

48

Just noticeable difference

Change in stimulus intensity necessary for detection of a change

49

Avoidant personality disorder

Feels inadequate, inferior, undesirable; fears criticism and conflict. Avoids interaction unless certain they will be liked

50

Histrionic personality disorder

Desire to be center of attention, dramatic, shallow emotions

51

Borderline personality disorder

Inability to control mood/impulse, reckless behavior, unstable relationships, afraid of abandonment

52

Antisocial personality disorder

Aggression, rule violation, disregard for others, lack of remorse

53

Schizotypal personality disorder

Traits that impede interaction: limited or inappropriate affect, magical or paranoid thinking, odd beliefs, behavior, and appearance. Lack of close ties outside relatives

54

Hardy-Weinberg equation

(p^2) + 2pq + (q^2) = 1

p + q = 1

Represents a population at equilibrium and not applies to traditional dominant/recessive allele pairs

55

Recombination frequency

RF = (#recombinants/total offspring) x 100

Calculated after performing a test cross

56

Ear anatomy (path sound takes after entering ear)

Pinna, external auditory canal, tympanic membrane, malleus, incus, stapes, oval window, round window, utricle + saccule, semicircular canals, cochlea

57

Piaget's first stage

Sensorimotor
0-2 yrs
Learn object permanence, people are not objects, and actions have effects

58

Piaget's second stage

Preoperational
2-7 years
use symbols to represent objects, think in concrete terms, egocentric, lack concept of conservation

59

Piaget's third stage

Concrete operational
7-11 yrs
Use higher logic and reasoning but still mainly think in concrete reality, understand principle of conservation later in this stage

60

Piaget's last stage

Formal operational
12+ yrs
Abstract thinking, comprehension of higher philosophical, ethical, and moral issues

61

Kohlberg's first level

Pre-conventional morality

Stage 1: obedience motivated by fear of punishment

Stage 2: actions motivated by self-interest and reward

62

Kohlberg's second level

Conventional morality

Stage 3: motivated by desire for social approval

Stage 4: motivated by respect for authority and perceived value of social order

63

Kohlberg's third level

Post-conventional morality

Stage 5: act based upon a social contract; balance between social order and individual rights

Stage 6: act based upon a perceived universal ethics, presumed existence of higher moral laws

64

Astrocytes

Maintain ISF homeostasis; blood brain barrier; axon all support

65

Ependymal cells

Form leaky barrier in ventricles of brain and central canal of spinal cord

66

Microglia

Immunity, damage repair

67

Oligodendrocytes

Myelination of CNS

68

Social constructionism

Societies create reality through the construction of norms, which can be changed over time

69

Afferent

From PNS to CNS

70

Efferent

From CNS to PNS

71

Mere exposure effect

Individuals develop more positive attitudes with repeated exposure to an object or individual

72

Informal reasoning

Same as inductive reasoning; evaluation based upon the believability of evidence

73

Self-perception theory

Daryl Ben

Individuals align their attitudes with their behavior by inferring their attitude through their behavior in certain situations

74

Representativeness heuristic

Judging whether or not something belongs in a given class based on how similar it is to other members of that class

75

Availability heuristic

Judging the likelihood of an event on the correctness of a hypothesis based on how easily it is brought to mind

76

Groupthink

Likelihood for individuals in a group who share similar attitudes to establish a viewpoint that is more extreme than the opinions of individual group members without being open to alternatives

77

The Calvin Cycle

Light-independent carbon fixation in plants and some bacteria

Fixation: inorganicCO2 to organic CO2
Reduction: use ATP and NADPH to reduce 3PGA to G3P
Regeneration: regenerate RuBP

78

Transduction

Process by which a virus acquires host genes

79

Water-soluble vitamins

C: antioxidant, immune support

B:
-B12+IF: nerve function
-B9: folic acid (embryonic NS)
-B7: biotin
-B1/B5: food to energy

80

Fat-soluble vitamins

A: vision, skin, immunity, etc.

D: calcium absorption

E: protects from free radicals (antioxidant)

K: blood coagulation

81

Epitope

Part of antigen recognized by antibody

82

Impression management

Expressing oneself differently with different people

83

Self-serving bias

Attributing positive events to one's intrinsic nature and negative ones to external causes

84

Actor/observer bias

Attributing one's own actions to situational causes and others' actions to dispositional factors

85

Ultimate attribution error

Positive in-group behavior: intrinsic
Negative in-group behavior: external

Positive out-group behavior: external
Negative out-group behavior: intrinsic

86

Fundamental attribution error

An overestimation of intrinsic disposition and underestimation of external factors when explaining others' behaviors

87

Optimism bias

Bad things only happen to other people

88

Conduction aphasia

Same as acquired aphasia
Ability to comprehend and speak but cannot repeat what they hear

89

Alexia

Inability to perceive written words

90

Dysthymic disorder

Mild to moderate depression lasting at least two years

No manic symptoms

91

Parasomnia

Abnormal behaviors that occur during sleep

92

Dysomnia

Abnormalities in the amount, timing, or quality of sleep

93

Self-determination theory

Achievement typically requires active stimulation from the environment and focuses on the intrinsic motivations of human behavior; states that humans have inherent growth tendencies

Innate needs: competence, relatedness, autonomy

94

Drive-reduction theory

A desire increases when unsatisfied and decreases when fulfilled

95

Orbitofrontal cortex

Emotional impulses, facial expression interpretation, motivation

96

Reference group

A group used as an example for behavior which gives a basis for self-evaluation and identity formation

97

Nativist theory

Humans are pre-programmed with the ability to develop language

Noam Chomsky

98

Selye's general adaptation syndrome

The body responds to all kinds of stress in a predictable manner

1. Alarm
2. Resistance
3. Exhaustion

99

Dual coding effect

Both verbal and visual information are used when processing input

100

Misinformation effect

Recall of episodic memory becomes less accurate because of post-event info

101

State-dependent effect

Memory retrieval is most effective when an individual is in the same state of consciousness as they were when the memory was formed

102

Eidetic memory

Photographic memory

103

Reciprocal determinism

Attributes, behavior, and environment affect each other in a continuous cycle

104

Differential association theory

Theory of deviance: individuals learn deviant behaviors through interaction with others engaged in such behaviors

105

Strain theory

When individuals lack the means to achieve societally-imposed goals they may resort to deviant behavior to achieve these goals

106

Terror management theory

Basic psychological conflict resulting from having a desire to live but realizing that death is inevitable

107

Breakdown theory

Riots, rebellion, and civil unrest occur when mechanisms of social control lose their power

108

Transtheoretical model of change

1. Precontemplation
2. Contemplation
3. Preparation
4. Action
5. Maintenance
6. Termination

109

Normative beliefs

Individuals' beliefs about how others perceive their actions

110

Eustress

Moderate stress considered normal and beneficial

111

Yerkes-Dodson Law

There is an optimum relationship between physiological arousal and performance, beyond which performance deteriorates

112

State-dependent effect

Memory retrieval is most effective when an individual is in the same state of consciousness as they were when the memory was formed