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1

Addisons disease

Decreased adrenocortical function
Hyperpigmentation, hypoglycemia, anemia, decreased sodium, bp, and potassium

2

Cushings disease

Excessive exposure to corticosteroids

Hyperglycemia, polycythemia, protein wasting, moon faces, buffalo hump etc.

3

Phosphate vs Acetate Corticosteroids

Phosphate - Short acting, clear, water soluble

Acetate - Long acting, white, insoluble
Should be reserved for damaged joints only.

4

Age that marcaine is restricted in children?

Restricted in children under the age of 12

5

Induction agents known to cause malignant hyperthermia?

Isoflurane, Desflurane, succinylcholine, sevoflurane

6

Use of Rocuronium and Succynylcholine in anesthesia?

Both are muscle relaxants!

7

Shape of vertical talus bottom of foot?

Rocker bottom!
Forefoot is abducted and there is dorsiflexion of the forefoot on the rearfoot

8

What muscle groups are tight for vertical talus?

Tendo achilles and anterior muscle group
Talar movement is imposible
Calcaneal equinus

9

What structures are tightened in vertical talus deformities?

Tibionavicular ligament
Talonavicular ligament
Anterior muscle group
Peroneus brevis/longus
Triceps surae
Calcaneofibular ligament
Posterior ankle and subtalar capsule

10

What structures are stretched with vertical talus?

Spring ligament
Tibialis posterior, FDL, FDB

11

This congenital deformity has a hypoplastic talaer neck that develops an abnormal facet

Vertical talus

Subtalar facets are abnormal because of the weird talocalcaneal articulation.

Anterior facet doesnt exist, middle facet is hypoplastic, and the posterior facet is malformed.

12

Eyre Brook test

Lateral plantarflexion in vertical talus to determine how reducible a procedure is.

13

Casting position for vertical talus?

foot plantarflexed
heel inverted
Forefoot in adduction
Knee flexed at 90

Key is lining up the TN joint

If correction occurs correctly, patient will have an equinovarus deformity.

14

First bone to ossify before birth?

Calcaneus

15

Last bone to ossify before birth

Cuboid

16

Last tarsal bone to ossify after birth

Navicular at 3.5 years

17

What age does the calcaneal apophysis appear?

7 years

18

What age do the sesamoids appear?

12 years

19

Age for osgood schlatters disease?

11-15 years of age

20

Kohlers disease

Boys in ages 3-6 years

21

Tillaux fracture vs Triplane fracture

Tillaux is lateral 1/2 of tib epiphysis. AITFL avulsion

Triplane is a combination of SH II and III with second fracture line through the epiphysis

22

Salter harris 6

bruising of peripheral growth plate by blunt trauma

23

What is the INR range that is acceptable for elective surgery?

1.3 - 1.4!!