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Flashcards in Problem Of Evil Deck (31):
1

What are the two formulations of the problem of evil?

The logical problem and the evidential problem

2

Who put forward the logical problem?

J.L.Mackie

3

What was J.L.Mackie’s argument called?

The inconsistent triad

4

What did epicerius argue about the nature of god?

He should even be considered god if he cannot remove evil or have the will to do so

5

What does McCabe state evil is?

When something doesn’t live up to expectations

6

Who put forward the evidential problem of evil?

William Rowe

7

What kind of evil does Rowe focus on?

Gratuitous evil

8

What example of gratuitous evil did Rowe provide?

Fawn dying in a forest fire

9

What kind of argument is the evidential problem?

Inductive

10

What kind of argument is the logical problem?

Deductive

11

What are the strengths of the Augustinian theodicy?

1) All loving god gives free will
2) humans are responsible for evil: gods attributes are not questioned
3) the existence of redemption in heaven shows god is all loving
4) Alvin Plantiga argues that humans with only the ability to do good would not be truly free
5) Brian Davies and Thomas Aquinas agree that evil is a privation

12

Quote from Brian Davies supporting Augustine

Evil is ‘a gap between what there is and what there ought to be’

13

Arguments against the Augustinian theodicy

1) hell suggests god isn’t omnibenevolent
2) John Hick argued that god created hell and earth at the same time, therefore knew humans would disobey god
3) Schleiermacher questions how a perfect creation could go wrong
4) relies on a literal interpretation of genesis
5) how is there a possibility to disobey god in a perfect world?
6) natural disasters occurred before humans existed: humans cannot be the cause of them

14

Quote from Hick

‘For most educated inhabitants of the modern world would regard the biblical story as myth rather than history’

15

World is good quote

‘God saw everything g he had made, and indeed, it was very good’

16

Quote from Augustine about what evil is

‘What are called vices in the soul are nothing but privations of natural good’

17

What kind of theodicy is Augustine’s?

Soul- deciding

18

Word for will

Voluntas

19

Quote on free will

‘A creature that sins by free will is far more excellent than one that does not sin only because it has no free will’

20

How does J.L.Mackie criticise Augustine?

An omnipotent god could make creatures with free will but always guarantee they do the right thing

21

How did Aristotle and Aquinas criticise Augustine?

To be fully responsible for an action one have full knowledge and consent

22

What is a theodicy?

An attempt to explain the evil and suffering in the world with the existence of god. It should not contradict the view of god being omnipotent and omnibenevolent

23

Who other than Augustine came up with a theodicy for the problem of evil?

Irenaus

24

What did John Hick call the world?

A vale of soul- making

25

What does Hick say are the two necessary conditions for human beings to reach perfection?

Free will and a distance of knowledge from god

26

What’s an epistemic distance?

Humans shouldn’t be obviously aware of gods existence

27

Why does irenaeus believe we need evil?

To grow into the ‘likeness of god’

28

Strengths of irenaus

We realise the value of human relationship with god, more fitting with human development

29

Scholars against irenaus

D.Z.Phillips: never justifiable to hurt someone else

Swinburne: omnibenevolent god needs to judge his creation

30

Brothers against theodicy

Karamazov

31

Example used by brothers

Child of 5 subjected to every possible torture