Flashcards in Problem Of Evil Deck (31):
What are the two formulations of the problem of evil?
The logical problem and the evidential problem
Who put forward the logical problem?
What was J.L.Mackie’s argument called?
The inconsistent triad
What did epicerius argue about the nature of god?
He should even be considered god if he cannot remove evil or have the will to do so
What does McCabe state evil is?
When something doesn’t live up to expectations
Who put forward the evidential problem of evil?
What kind of evil does Rowe focus on?
What example of gratuitous evil did Rowe provide?
Fawn dying in a forest fire
What kind of argument is the evidential problem?
What kind of argument is the logical problem?
What are the strengths of the Augustinian theodicy?
1) All loving god gives free will
2) humans are responsible for evil: gods attributes are not questioned
3) the existence of redemption in heaven shows god is all loving
4) Alvin Plantiga argues that humans with only the ability to do good would not be truly free
5) Brian Davies and Thomas Aquinas agree that evil is a privation
Quote from Brian Davies supporting Augustine
Evil is ‘a gap between what there is and what there ought to be’
Arguments against the Augustinian theodicy
1) hell suggests god isn’t omnibenevolent
2) John Hick argued that god created hell and earth at the same time, therefore knew humans would disobey god
3) Schleiermacher questions how a perfect creation could go wrong
4) relies on a literal interpretation of genesis
5) how is there a possibility to disobey god in a perfect world?
6) natural disasters occurred before humans existed: humans cannot be the cause of them
Quote from Hick
‘For most educated inhabitants of the modern world would regard the biblical story as myth rather than history’
World is good quote
‘God saw everything g he had made, and indeed, it was very good’
Quote from Augustine about what evil is
‘What are called vices in the soul are nothing but privations of natural good’
What kind of theodicy is Augustine’s?
Word for will
Quote on free will
‘A creature that sins by free will is far more excellent than one that does not sin only because it has no free will’
How does J.L.Mackie criticise Augustine?
An omnipotent god could make creatures with free will but always guarantee they do the right thing
How did Aristotle and Aquinas criticise Augustine?
To be fully responsible for an action one have full knowledge and consent
What is a theodicy?
An attempt to explain the evil and suffering in the world with the existence of god. It should not contradict the view of god being omnipotent and omnibenevolent
Who other than Augustine came up with a theodicy for the problem of evil?
What did John Hick call the world?
A vale of soul- making
What does Hick say are the two necessary conditions for human beings to reach perfection?
Free will and a distance of knowledge from god
What’s an epistemic distance?
Humans shouldn’t be obviously aware of gods existence
Why does irenaeus believe we need evil?
To grow into the ‘likeness of god’
Strengths of irenaus
We realise the value of human relationship with god, more fitting with human development
Scholars against irenaus
D.Z.Phillips: never justifiable to hurt someone else
Swinburne: omnibenevolent god needs to judge his creation
Brothers against theodicy