Problem Solving & Intelligence Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Problem Solving & Intelligence Deck (27):
1

Intelligence

Ability to perform cognitive tasks and the capacity to learn from experience and adapt

2

Deductive reasoning

Going from a theory or a broad topic and making a specific conclusion or fact from it

3

Inductive reasoning

Moving from specific facts to broader generalizations and theories

4

Characteristics of an intelligence test have to be

Reliable: test produces consistent results
Valid: measures what the researcher was trying to measure

5

Galton

Wanted to quantify intelligence in an unbiased way

6

Spearman

Believed in a single type of intelligence, g ,

7

Gardner

Proposed multiple intelligences theory and test

8

Flynn effect

Mean score for intelligent test has been steadily increasing since 1932

9

Schema

How you interpret the world

10

Assimilation

Manipulates incoming information to fit with existing schemas

11

Accommodation

Modifying existing schemas to fit incompatible information

12

Sensorimotor stage

What has to be perfected in this stage?

0-2yrs
Object permanence - understand that objects are still there even when out of view
- recognize that they can affect the environment

13

Preoperational stage

What four things do they have difficulty with?

2-7yrs
Egocentrism: difficulty understanding the world from others perspective
Seriation: ability to logically order a series of objects
Reversible relationships: have difficulty identifying
Conservation: unable to identify differences in conservation

14

Concrete Operational Stage

7-12
Unable to thing abstractly or reason based on a hypothesis
Can perform things they struggled with in preoperational

15

Formal operational

12+
Able to thing abstractly
Work with hypotheses
Everything else that makes up the range of adult cognitive abilities
May become interested in games books etc

16

Criticisms of Piagets theory

Decalage: some children develop skills out of order
Children's language abilities: this hypothesis was based on child's language ability

17

Confirmation bias

Our tendency to seek out information that supports our hypothesis rather than info that disproves it

18

Heuristics

Mental shortcut use to problem solve quickly and correctly

19

Availability heuristic

Our tendency to make decisions based on what we have readily available

20

Representativeness heuristic

Compare something to our existing prototype of what we consider to be the most typical example of a particular category

21

Self Regulation

Helps to delay reward

22

Bounded rationality

Cognitive limitations prevent humans from being fully rational

23

Biases

Mistakes that influence rationality

24

Anchoring

Bias affected by initial anchor, even if anchor is arbitrary

25

Framing

The bias to be systematically affected by the way in which info is presented

26

N back test

participants are asked to keep track of an image, number or letter that appeared n positions back in a series

27

Dual n back test

Participants have to match a visual and auditory cue