Prokaryote Structure Flashcards Preview

Unit 1 Test > Prokaryote Structure > Flashcards

Flashcards in Prokaryote Structure Deck (26):
1

pili

numerous short thin fibers made of protein protruding from the surface of G- bacteria (adhesions are attached to the pili)

2

pili functions

1) attach cells to surfaces to form biofilms or microcolonies on human cell and and tissue surfaces
2) facilitates tissue colonozation (like platelets)
3) facilitates disease devolpment

3

flagella

organs of motility

4

flagella

hook (elbow joint) attaches filament to the basal body
filament- outside tail (helical, hollow, protein)
basal body- screw- anchors filament to the cell membrane and cell wall

5

basal body in G- and G+

G+ (one ring in cell membrane and one in cell wall)
G- (pair of rings in cell membrane and pair in cell wall)

6

chemotaxis

movement of a cell or an organism toward a chemical or nutrient (runs, tumbles)

7

polar or monotrichous

single flagellum at one end

8

amphitrichous

single flagellum at EACH end

9

lophotrichous

tufts of flagella at one or both ends

10

peritrichous

flagella distributed all over

11

glycocalyx

solid around the cell- "sugar/sweet coat"
capsule vs slime layer
capsule- thick well organized tightly bonded to the cell
slime- thin and loosely organized

12

glycocalyx functions

1) prevents drying out
2) sticky so cell attaches to a host
3) prevents phagocytosis- or WBCs engulfing foreign matter and destroying the microorganism

13

cell envelope

cell wall + cell membrane
cell wall- relatively porous
cell membrane- regulates the transport of nutrients and metabolic products

14

cell wall

-maintains shape and reinforces
-contains PEP, chains of disaccharides linked by peptide bridges

15

PEP

N- acetylglucosamine N- acetylmuramic acid

16

G+ cell walls

THICK PEP- penicillian destroys
-teichoic acid present

17

techoic acid

1) maintains surface charge of cell wall
2) controls activity of autolytic enzymes on PEP
3) maintains permeability of cell wall

18

G- cell walls

thin layer of PEP
outer membrane- periplasm

19

o-polysaccharide

sugar acts as an antigen- helps in identification

20

lipid A - endotoxin

metabolic poison created by G- bacteria
-when dies releases a toxin that makes you sicker
endotoxin- part of cell wall, breaking cell puts endotoxin into the bloodstream

21

porins in outer membrane

proteins that form channels in the membrane, allows certain things in

22

exotoxins

protein molecules manufactured during bacterail metabolism - produced by G+ and G-

23

endotoxin

only G-
actually a part of the cell- in outer membrane
-lipid polysaccharides

24

mycoplasma

lacks a cell well

25

endotoxins responsible for:

UTI, typhoid fever and meningitis

26

exotoxins responsible for:

tetanus, botulism, adn diphtheria